PAETE.ORG FORUMS
Paetenians Home on the Net

HOME | ABOUT PAETE | USAP PAETE MUNISIPYO  | MEMBERS ONLY  | PICTORIAL PAETE | SINING PAETE  | LINKS  |

FORUM GUIDELINES
please read before posting

USAP PAETE Forum Index USAP PAETE
Discussion Forums for the people of Paete, Laguna, Philippines
 
 FAQFAQ   SearchSearch    UsergroupsUsergroups   RegisterRegister 
 ProfileProfile   Log in to check your private messagesLog in to check your private messages   Log inLog in 

(Health) Food Pyramid

 
Post new topic   Reply to topic   printer-friendly view    USAP PAETE Forum Index -> Science Lessons Forum
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Wed Nov 16, 2005 1:14 pm    Post subject: (Health) Food Pyramid Reply with quote






Atkins diet deprives the heart of energy, study shows

James Meikle, health correspondent
Tuesday November 15, 2005
The Guardian


The once-fashionable Atkins diet, the high-fat low-carbohydrate method of losing weight, helps empty the heart's "fuel tank" by reducing the energy it stores, scientists said yesterday.
Researchers, their friends and families tested changes in their heart function after a fortnight on the diet, which consists mainly of meat, eggs and dairy products. They found that energy stores were back to normal within two weeks of returning to a normal diet, the British Heart Foundation team told the American Heart Association meeting in Dallas, Texas. Further work is needed to determine whether such changes had long-term effects, it said.

A more severe form of energy loss is evident in heart failure, when patients struggle with physical exertion because they have little left "in the tank".

Nineteen people took part in the study by the BHF's cardiac metabolism group at Oxford University. Scientists used magnetic resonance equipment to measure how different substances were processed in the body and used in the heart.

Many aspects of heart function were unchanged, said Kieran Clarke, who led the research: But, he added: "We have discovered the first evidence that the Atkins diet directly affects the heart in its ability to store energy. One of the participants even noticed this in his everyday life. He couldn't manage his daily run while on the diet.

"Our study gives us some interesting insights into how extreme diets like Atkins may be affecting us. Of course, this is a small and short-term piece of work. The body is remarkably adaptive and what we don't know is whether our hearts would have gradually returned to normal had we stuck to the diet long-term."

Professor Clarke said people had lost an average 3kg (6.6lb) on the Atkins diet. "It works and you don't feel hungry but it is a terrible diet," she said. The group was now testing the Total Wellbeing diet, which originated in Australia, where a balance of meat, fish, wholegrain bread, cereal, low-fat dairy foods, fruit and vegetables are recommended. "It is a much more balanced diet," she said.

Peter Weissberg, the medical director of the BHF, said: "Diet devotees can be reassured that this research in no way suggests that a high-fat, low-carbohydrate regime is going to give them heart failure. But they should be aware that extreme, unbalanced diets are a major insult on their bodies' metabolism and, as this study indicates, may have direct effects on their hearts. In addition, as in Atkins, they tend to be high in saturated fat."

*************************************************************

Questions to explore further this topic:

What are the current suggestions for a balanced diet? (the following is an animation for PCs)

http://www.mypyramid.gov/globa.....ng_pc.html

Want to know the amount of each food group you need daily? Enter your information below to find out and receive a customized food guide.

http://www.mypyramid.gov/mypyramid/index.aspx

Learn the new pyramid and the different food groups:


http://www.mypyramid.gov/pyramid/index.html

What is the Atkins' diet?

http://www.the-atkins-diet.info/

What is the Total Wellbeing diet?

http://www.csiro.au/index.asp?.....et_Summary

Here are nutrition lessons designed for elementary schools:

http://www.nutritionexploratio.....tfoods.asp

What does the heart do?

http://www.americanheart.org/p.....er=3003353

How do foods help our body?

http://www.americanheart.org/p.....er=3003153

GAMES


http://www.nutritionexploratio.....ittled.asp
http://www.mypyramid.gov/kids/kids_game.html#
http://www.dole5aday.com/MusicAndPlay/M_Games.jsp
http://exhibits.pacsci.org/nut.....leuth.html
http://kidshealth.org/kid/clos.....terim.html
http://kidshealth.org/kid/clos....._game.html
http://kidshealth.org/kid/clos.....ition.html


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 4:51 pm; edited 3 times in total
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
nievesb



Joined: 12 Jul 2005
Posts: 671
Location: Nieves Agbada Bagalso

PostPosted: Wed Nov 16, 2005 5:59 pm    Post subject: WOW Reply with quote

Wow its very interesting that there is a diet such like this.Anyway,Its very educational and It can teach younger people with ease and quickly,plus Its fun. I like this science program you added at the forum.
-Bernard Yves Bagalso
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website Yahoo Messenger
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu Nov 17, 2005 4:31 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks, Bernie, for visiting this forum. I will continue to add a topic every school day. So visit this forum regularly so that you won't miss a topic and I will try to find as many games and other fun activities as possible.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Sat Dec 24, 2005 11:52 am    Post subject: High-veg diet 'wards off cancer' Reply with quote

High-veg diet 'wards off cancer'

Eating at least five portions a day of certain fruit and vegetables could cut the risk of developing pancreatic cancer by 50%, US researchers believe.
Onions, garlic, beans, carrots, corn, dark leafy vegetables and citrus fruits were among the most protective foods, according to the study.

A University of California team compared the diets of 2,200 people.

Cancer experts said previous studies had revealed similar findings, but more research was still needed.

More than 10,000 people die each year in the UK from pancreatic cancer. It remains largely untreatable, with the five-year survival rate at under 3%.


HIGHLY-PROTECTIVE FOOD
Onions
Garlic
Beans
Carrots
Dark leafy vegetables
Corn
Sweet potatoes
Citrus fruits

The report, published in the Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention journal, said eating five portions daily of the most protective vegetables cuts the risk in half.

Or it said eating any nine fruit or vegetables could have the same effect.

Raw vegetables were found to be more protective than cooked ones, the study said after conducting interviews with 532 people with the cancer, and 1,700 people who did not have the disease.

But researchers acknowledged the results may have been influenced by food which may often be eaten with the vegetables.

Report co-author Elizabeth Holly said: "Pancreatic cancer is not nearly as common as breast or lung cancer, but its diagnosis and treatment are particularly difficult.

"Finding strong confirmation that simple life choices can provide significant protection from pancreatic cancer may be one of the most practical ways to reduce the incidence of this dreadful disease."

Dr Julie Sharp, cancer information officer at Cancer Research UK, said: "Previous research has implied that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables may help to prevent pancreatic cancer.

"This research adds to these findings, but large-scale studies are vital to confirm whether fruit and vegetables really have an effect on pancreatic cancer risk."

And she added other lifestyle factors, such as smoking, also played a key role.

Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr.....554790.stm

Published: 2005/12/24 00:21:26 GMT
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Sun Apr 09, 2006 10:37 am    Post subject: Fighting nutrition misinformation Reply with quote

Cornell Food & Brand Lab
7 April 2006

Fighting nutrition misinformation:

Media insights...and warnings from the ADA's newest position statement
ITHACA, NY-- This month the American Dietetics Association releases its newest updated position statement – Food and Nutrition Misinformation. And it has a lot to say about the media.
"In today's nutrition education world, the media is king," said Dr. Brian Wansink, Cornell University Professor and author of the position statement. The media that were cited as having the biggest impact were magazines, television, books, newspapers, and the Internet.

How does the media score on accuracy? "They get good marks," said Wansink, but there are four inaccuracies that can be easily avoided: 1) reporting a correlation as causation, 2) generalizing a study's results to a broader population not represented by the study, 3) exaggerating the size of an effect, and 4) using a single link in a chain of events to make predictions about events in the future.

Given media's critical role in nutrition education, the position statement offers advice for journalists who are reporting on nutrition studies:


Was the research done by a credible institution and by qualified researchers?
Is this a preliminary study? Have other studies reached similar conclusions?
Was the research population large enough? Was the study long enough?
Who paid for the study, and is the science valid despite the funding source?
Was the report reviewed by peers?
Does the report avoid absolutes, such as "proves" or "causes"?
Does the report reflect appropriate context (e.g., how the research fits into a broader picture of scientific evidence and consumer lifestyles)?
Do the results apply only to a certain group of people?

###
The position paper will be published in this April's Journal of the American Dietetic Association. More information on the report can be found at the website of the American Dietetic Association (www.eatright.org) or by contacting the author, Professor Brian Wansink at 607-254-6302 or Wansink@Cornell.edu.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue Dec 26, 2006 11:31 am    Post subject: Why children, average Filipino eat less fruits, vegetables Reply with quote

Wednesday, December 27, 2006
Why children, average Filipino eat less fruits, vegetables

MANY Filipino mothers bewail their children's difficult fruit and vegetable eating behavior.

Fruits and vegetables are packed with vitamins and minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals that are beneficial to health.

Sun.Star Network Online's Christmas Special

Consumption of fruits and vegetables remains low particularly among children, a situation confirmed by results of the 2003 Food Consumption Survey of the Food and Nutrition Research Institute of the Department of Science and Technology.

The survey, the most recent on the subject, showed per capita intake of fruits at 53 grams in 2003 compared to 104 grams in 1978. Intake of vegetables also dropped from 145 grams to 110 grams during the same period.

The low intake of fruits and vegetables can be attributed to rising prices of food and other basic needs of families such as housing, education, healthcare, and other utilities.

The survey also revealed that ordinary Filipino spent the bulk or 67.7 percent of the budget for food on meat (29.9 percent) and rice (36.8 percent). This means that only 33.3 percent of the food budget is spread on all other food needs.

The same spending pattern was also recorded 10 years ago based on the 1993 Food Consumption Survey, which found that the average Filipinos' budget for food was spent mainly on rice and meat at 28.9 percent and 37.4 percent, respectively.

In the 1993 and 2003 Food Consumption Surveys, the food peso value for vegetables remained the same at 7.8 percent of which only 1.8 percent was for green, leafy and yellow vegetables. The remaining 6 percent went to other non-leafy vegetables.

Food peso value for fruits declined from 4.8 percent in 1993 to 3.2 percent in 2003. Vitamin C-rich fruits had a share of only 2 percent in 1993 and dropped to 0.8 percent in 2003.

It came as no surprise that mean per capita nutrient intake of iron, calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin C reached less than 80 percent of requirements. The result of the survey is consistent with the low intake of fruits and vegetables that contain such nutrients.

Moreover, the survey results showed that iron deficiency anemia remains a public health problem among children 6 months to 5 years old, and 6 to 12 years old at 32.4 percent and 37.4 percent prevalence, respectively.

There was also a three-fold rate increase of obesity from 1998 to 2003 among children 0-5 years old, from 0.4 percent to 1.4 percent.

Among the 6 to 12 years old, obesity increased from a negligible rate in 1998 to 0.4 percent in 2003. Obesity's increasing prevalence could be associated to children growing accustomed to fast food diets.

Fast food-based diets are loaded with extra calories that are stored as body fat but are very low in vitamins and minerals.

Limited knowledge particularly among mothers and caregivers on the importance of fruits and vegetables to health is another factor for the low intake rate. This is aggravated by the limited skills on preparing these foods.

Older children and even adults tend to choose what they eat based on what they remember liking during their early years, says Dr. Paula Zeigler, principal scientist at Gender Products Company based in Fremont, Michigan, USA.

Citing the study of Krebs-Smith, Zeigler noted that fruit and vegetable intakes in childhood are the strongest predictors of fruit and vegetable intakes in adulthood. This makes it important that children be exposed to eating fruits and vegetables at early age.

The early years of life represent formative years when eating practices could influence much of the eating habits during adult life. Young children need nutrients from fruits and vegetables to meet increased requirements for rapid growth and development.

The early years provide opportunity for parents to develop their children's eating habits and act as role models for healthy eating habits. (Mildred O. Guirindola, Research Specialist)
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Feb 19, 2007 9:49 am    Post subject: Recipe for healthy garlic: Crush before cooking Reply with quote

Recipe for healthy garlic: Crush before cooking
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
19 February 2007

"Stop and smell the garlic — that's all you have to do," advised William Shatner, whose starring roles ranged from Captain Kirk in Star Trek to himself in Iron Chef USA. New scientific research is editing Shatner's advice for the millions of people seeking garlic's fabulous flavor and its reputed health benefits. Make it read: Stop and crush the garlic.

Claudio R. Galmarini and colleagues in Argentina and the United States are reporting new evidence that crushing garlic before cooking can reduce the loss of garlic's healthful properties. In a report scheduled for the March 7 edition of ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, a bi-weekly publication, they note that many past studies of garlic and health used raw garlic. The new study joins a handful or others to examine how the heat of cooking affects the chemical compounds associated with garlic's beneficial health effects.

The researchers found that even a few minutes of cooking reduces levels of those compounds. The reduction is steepest in whole garlic, and less pronounced in garlic that has been crushed before cooking. Crushing or chopping garlic releases an enzyme, alliinase, that catalyzes the formation of allicin, which then breaks down to form a variety of healthful organosulfur compounds. The researchers believe that crushing garlic before cooking may allow alliinase to work before cooking inactivates the enzyme. Their report notes that allowing crushed garlic to stand for 10 minutes before cooking may further enhance formation of those compounds before heat inactivates alliinase.

ARTICLE #3 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
"Effect of Cooking on Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Antiplatelet Activity and Thiosulfinates Content"

DOWNLOAD PDF
http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....62587s.pdf
DOWNLOAD HTML
http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....2587s.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Fri Apr 06, 2007 7:00 am    Post subject: New Diet Trick: Eat More Air Reply with quote

New Diet Trick: Eat More Air

By Melinda Wenner
Special to LiveScience
posted: 05 April 2007
09:11 am ET

Air is a key ingredient that can cut some calories from snacks, a team of nutritionists claims.

The researchers invited people who were not on diets to snack on as many cheese puffs as they wanted over the course of four afternoons. One group munched on dense Cheetos, while others munched on the puffier, more aerated ones.

Although the group snacking on the more aerated puffs ate more by volume, they ended up consuming 21 percent fewer calories on average, according to results detailed in the May issue of the journal Appetite.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum....._food.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue Apr 10, 2007 9:07 am    Post subject: The Atkins Paradox: What Diet Studies Don't Reveal Reply with quote

The Atkins Paradox: What Diet Studies Don't Reveal

By Christopher Wanjek
LiveScience's Bad Medicine Columnist
posted: 10 April 2007
08:52 am ET

It's hard to keep a bad diet down. Doctors at Stanford University Medical School published a year-long study last month in the Journal of the American Medical Association comparing four popular diets, from low-carb to low-fat. Once again, the Atkins diet won.

The news media loves good irony and thus provided pork rind lovers with more ammunition to combat all those wimpy salad eaters at work. The study calls to mind the words of the late Robert Atkins, the originator of the Atkins diet, who wondered sarcastically at what point he could say, "I told you so."

Alas, Dr. Atkins, not yet.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....tkins.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Wed May 09, 2007 11:38 am    Post subject: Study confirms health benefits of whole grains Reply with quote

Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center
9 May 2007

Study confirms health benefits of whole grains

WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. -- A diet high in whole grain foods is associated with a significantly lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease, including heart disease and stroke, according to an analysis conducted by researchers at Wake Forest University School of Medicine.

"Consuming an average of 2.5 servings of whole grains each day is associated with a 21 percent lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared to consuming only 0.2 servings," said Philip Mellen, M.D., lead author and an assistant professor of internal medicine. "These findings suggest that we should redouble our efforts to encourage patients to include more of these foods in their diets."

These results were published on line in Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases and will appear in a future print issue.

The findings are based on an analysis of seven studies involving more than 285,000 people. By combining the data from these seven studies, researchers were able to detect effects that may not have shown up in each individual study. The studies were conducted between 1966 and April 2006.

Mellen said the findings are consistent with earlier research, but that despite abundant evidence about the health benefits of whole grains, intake remains low. A nutrition survey conducted between 1999 and 2000 found that only 8 percent of U.S. adults consumed three or more servings of whole grain per day and that 42 percent of adults ate no whole grains on a given day.

"Many consumers and health professionals are unaware of the health benefits of whole grains," said Mellen.

A grain is "whole" when the entire grain seed is retained: the bran, germ and the endosperm. The bran and germ components are rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and healthy fats. These are the parts removed in the refining process, leaving behind the energy-dense but nutrient-poor endosperm portion of the grain. Examples of whole grain foods include wild rice, popcorn, oatmeal, brown rice, barley, wheat berries and flours such as whole wheat.

In addition to protecting against cardiovascular disease, which accounts for one-third of deaths worldwide, there is evidence that whole grains also project against diabetes and other chronic conditions.

"Years ago, scientists hypothesized that the higher rates of chronic diseases we have in the West, including heart disease, are due, in part, to a diet full of processed foods," Mellen said. "Subsequent studies have born that out – especially with whole grains. Greater whole grain intake is associated with less obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol – major factors that increase the risk for heart disease and stroke."

According to nutritionists, consumers should look for "100 percent whole grain" on food labels or look for specific types of whole-grain flour as the main ingredient, such as "whole wheat."

###
Co-researchers were: Thomas Walsh, M.D., and David Herrington, M.H.S., M.D., both from Wake Forest.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu May 24, 2007 11:46 am    Post subject: New study indicates that people may need more dietary cholin Reply with quote

Edelman Public Relations
24 May 2007

New study indicates that people may need more dietary choline than previously thought

Eggs 1 of the best sources of the nutrient

Washington, D.C. -- A new study published in the May issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition indicates that the current recommended Adequate Intake (AI) for choline may, in fact, be inadequate for some people.1 Choline is an essential nutrient for normal functioning of all cells, including those involved with liver metabolism, brain and nerve function, memory, and the transportation of nutrients throughout the body.

In this depletion-repletion study, 57 adult subjects (26 men, 16 premenopausal women and 15 postmenopausal women) were fed a diet containing 550 mg of choline for 10 days, then fed less than 50 mg a day of choline for up to 42 days.


When deprived of the nutrient, 77 percent of men, 80 percent of postmenopausal women and 44 percent of premenopausal women developed fatty liver or muscle damage.
Six men (23 percent) developed these signs while consuming the initial 550 mg of daily choline, even though 550 mg is the current AI for men.
Nineteen percent of the subjects required as high as 825 mg of daily choline to prevent or reverse the organ dysfunction associated with the low-choline diet, an amount significantly higher than the current AI.
For all participants, blood homocysteine levels increased during choline depletion. Other studies have associated high homocysteine levels with heart disease.

"These study results clearly indicate that some adults, notably men and post-menopausal women, need more choline than is recommended by the current AI," says study co-author Kerry-Ann da Costa, PhD, a research assistant professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. "We hope these findings will aid the Institute of Medicine in refining the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) of this nutrient."

This study is the most complete study of choline requirements to date and is the first to include women. Its division of participants into two groups – one receiving dietary supplementation of folic acid and one not – also determined that susceptibility to choline deficiency was not altered by folic acid supplementation.

Closing the Choline Gap

Additional research on the population demonstrated that choline intake is far below the current AI, a concern that intakes may be too low to meet the needs of many individuals.

Research conducted at Iowa State University found that only 10 percent or less of older children, men, women and pregnant women in America get the AI of choline each day.2
A separate study presented this month at the National Nutrient Data Bank Conference found that choline intake decreases with age and that adults ages 71 and older consume an average of about 264 milligrams per day – roughly half of the AI for choline.3

Eggs, beef liver, chicken liver and wheat germ are considered excellent sources of choline. Two eggs contain 280 milligrams of choline, half the recommended daily supply.

"Eggs are a practical food that can help people get the choline they need, along with several other nutrients, at just 75 calories an egg," says registered dietitian Maye Musk. "Choline is actually found in the yolk of the egg, so people who consistently only eat egg whites may be missing out on a key nutrient opportunity."

Why Choline Matters

The importance of dietary choline has been well-established.


A 2004 study in the American Journal of Epidemiology linked poor dietary choline to adverse outcomes during pregnancy, including a four-fold increased risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect. 4
A research review published in the Annual Reviews of Nutrition suggests that choline plays an important role in normal fetal development, particularly during the stages that involve knowledge acquirement and life-long memory function. 5

###
For more information, on the benefits of choline for pregnant women, visit www.pregnancyfoodguide.org or www.enc-online.org. For additional information or media interviews, contact the Egg Nutrition Media Hotline at 312-233-1211 or info@eggnutrition.org.

About the American Egg Board (AEB)

AEB is the U.S. egg producer's link to the consumer in communicating the value of The incredible edible egg™ and is funded from a national legislative checkoff on all egg production from companies with greater than 75,000 layers in the continental United States. The board consists of 18 members and 18 alternates from all regions of the country who are appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture. The AEB staff carries out the programs under the board direction. AEB is located in Park Ridge, Ill. Visit www.aeb.org for more information.

About the Egg Nutrition Center (ENC)

ENC was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing commercial egg producers and processors, health promotion agencies, and consumers with a resource for scientifically accurate information on egg nutrition and the role of eggs in the health and nutrition of the American diet. The center exists under a cooperative agreement between the American Egg Board (AEB) and United Egg Producers (UEP). ENC is located in Washington, DC. Visit www.enc-online.org for more information.

1 Fischer LM, et al. Sex and menopausal status influence human dietary requirements for the nutrient choline. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85:1275-85.

2 Jensen HH, et al. Choline in the diets of the US population: NHANES, 2003-2004, Iowa State University (presented at Experimental Biology 2007, Washington DC)

3 Keast DR, Food sources of choline in the diets of US older adults: NHANES, 1999-2004." (presented at the 31st National Nutrient Databank Conference, Washington DC) Food sources of choline in the diets of US older adults: NHANES, 1999-2004.

4Shaw GM, et al. Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring. Am J Epid 2004; 160(2):102-109.

5Zeisel SH. Choline:critical role during fetal development and dietary requirements in adults. Annu Rev Nutr, 2006; 26:229-50.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue Jun 05, 2007 1:21 pm    Post subject: Low-carb diets' effects linked to rise in newly identified ' Reply with quote

Cell Press
5 June 2007

Low-carb diets' effects linked to rise in newly identified 'starvation hormone'

The benefits sometimes seen in those on a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet may depend on increased levels of a newly identified "starvation hormone" produced by the liver, according to a report in the June issue of the journal Cell Metabolism, published by Cell Press. Two studies in the issue show that the hormone plays a critical role in the metabolic shift seen in animals after a period of fasting and in those fed an Atkins-like diet. That shift is characterized by an increased reliance on fat stores as an alternative source of fuel when glucose, the body’s primary energy source, plummets.

A team led by Eleftheria Maratos-Flier of Harvard University reports evidence that increased blood levels of liver-derived "fibroblast growth factor 21" (FGF21) are required for fasted mice and mice on a carbohydrate-restricted diet to switch gears and begin burning fat. Likewise, an accompanying study led by Steven Kliewer of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center found that FGF21 mobilizes fat in food-restricted animals and those with chronically elevated concentrations of the liver hormone. Kliewer’s team further showed that the hormone contributes to energy-conserving behavioral changes as animals ride out food shortages.

"What’s really exciting is that mice with excess FGF21—even when they are fed—look like they are fasted," Kliewer said. "It’s startling that you can give one hormone and flip the whole metabolic profile."

"We think these findings would increase the desirability of a drug that [might work through this mechanism] to increase fat oxidation in the liver," added Maratos-Flier, noting that the rise in obesity has contributed to a growing epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although the physiology remained uncertain, pharmacological studies of mice and diabetic monkeys had previously shown promise for FGF21 therapy as a means to lower blood sugar and lipids and stave off weight gain.

Mammals survive periods of nutrient deprivation by shifting from carbohydrates to so-called ketone bodies as a primary fuel source. Ketone bodies are produced from fatty acids transferred from storage in fat tissue to the liver when carbohydrates are scarce. During prolonged fasts, ketone bodies can provide nearly half of baseline energy requirements and up to 70% of the energy required by the brain.

Earlier studies also showed that feeding rodents a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ("ketogenic") diet induces lipid oxidation associated with weight loss, according to Maratos-Flier. Yet the underlying mechanism responsible for the profound physiological changes that the diets induced wasn’t fully understood.

In the new study, Maratos-Flier’s team examined changes in gene activity occurring in mice fed a high-fat, low-carb diet for 30 days. Their comprehensive genetic screen of the animals, which lost weight on the special diet, turned up FGF21.

"We saw a dramatic increase in FGF21 in the livers of the mice [on the diet]," she said. "We thought, ‘Maybe there is something to this.’"

Through further experimentation, the researchers found that liver and circulating levels of FGF21 increase in mice in response to both a low-carb, high-fat diet and fasting. Moreover, the hormone declined rapidly when fasted animals were fed again. In mice unable to produce FGF21 in their livers, the special diet resulted only in fatty liver, high blood lipids, and reduced blood ketones, due at least in part to altered expression of key genes governing lipid and ketone metabolism.

Meanwhile, Kliewer’s group identified the FGF21 endocrine hormone as a mediator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor " (PPAR"). Scientists have known that PPAR""controls fats’ use as an energy source during starvation. In addition, some drugs that lower "bad" cholesterol work by targeting PPAR""

Kliewer’s group showed that FGF21 is induced directly by PPAR" in liver in response to fasting in mice. FGF21 in turn stimulates lipid breakdown in white adipose tissue and ketone body production in the liver. They unexpectedly also found that FGF21 led the animals to reduce their physical activity and made them more sensitive to entering torpor, a short-term, hibernation-like state.

In addition to altering their fuel sources, many small mammals conserve energy when food is scarce by undergoing periodic bouts of torpor, Kliewer explained.

"When you step back, the whole thing makes sense," he said. "During fasting, the liver hormone communicates with adipose tissue to send fat to the liver. It turns on the metabolism of fat into ketone bodies—and at the same time, it sensitizes the animals to going into torpor to conserve energy. It’s clear that FGF21 is a principal component of the fasting or starvation response."

The two studies together lead to an "obvious possibility that FGF21 accounts for the proposed positive effect of the Atkins diet—including weight loss and an increase in ‘good’ cholesterol," Kliewer continued.

The degree to which the physiological effects of a ketogenic diet in humans mimic those seen in mice remains to be determined, Maratos-Flier added. She intends to examine FGF21 levels in humans after a few days on the Atkins diet, she said.

Either way, such low-carb, high-fat diets aren’t likely to work for everyone.

"It may be that some people are more likely to turn on FGF21 than others," Maratos-Flier said. In obese individuals, for example, high insulin levels may interfere with the liver hormone, she said.

###
Badman et al.: "Hepatic Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Is Regulated by PPARa and Is a Key Mediator of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism in Ketotic States." Publishing in Cell Metabolism 5, 426–437, June 2007. DOI 10.1016/j.cmet.2007.05.002 www.cellmetabolism.org

The researchers include Michael K. Badman, Pavlos Pissios, Adam R. Kennedy, Jeffrey S. Flier, and Eleftheria Maratos-Flier of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, MA; George Koukos of Boston University School of Medicine in Boston, MA.

This work was supported by NIH grant 5P30DK46200-14 from the Boston Obesity Nutrition Research Center to M.K.B., NIH grant HL-48739 to G.K., and a grant from Takeda Pharmaceuticals to J.S.F. and E.M.-F.

Inagaki et al.: "Endocrine Regulation of the Fasting Response by PPARa-Mediated Induction of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21." Publishing in Cell Metabolism 5, 415-425, June 2007. DOI 10.1016/j.cmet.2007.05.003 www.cellmetabolism.org

The researchers include Takeshi Inagaki, Paul Dutchak, Guixiang Zhao, Laurent Gautron, Vinay Parameswara, Victoria Esser, Joel K. Elmquist, Robert D. Gerard, Shawn C. Burgess, Robert E. Hammer, and Steven A. Kliewer of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, TX; Xunshan Ding and David J. Mangelsdorf of Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, TX; Yong Li of Van Andel Research Institute in Grand Rapids, MI; Regina Goetz and Moosa Mohammadi of New York University School of Medicine in New York, NY.

This work was funded by National Institutes of Health grants DK067158 (SAK), P20RR20691 (SAK and DJM), U19DK62434 (DJM), DK53301 (JKE), and DE13686 (MM), the Robert A. Welch Foundation (SAK and DJM), the Betty Van Andel Foundation (YL), the Smith Family Foundation Pinnacle Program Project Award from the American Diabetes Association (JKE) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (XD and DJM). DJM is an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu Jun 14, 2007 9:37 am    Post subject: Can a Mediterranean diet prevent colon cancer? Reply with quote

Can a Mediterranean diet prevent colon cancer?
University of Michigan Health System

U-M researchers to study how food choices affect cancer risk Study to compare Mediterranean diet with standard healthy diet

ANN ARBOR, MI – Are all healthy eating plans the same when it comes to cancer prevention?

Researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center are beginning a study to look at whether diet can impact a person’s risk of developing colon cancer. Specifically, the researchers will compare a Mediterranean diet – high in olive oil, nuts and fish – with a standard healthy eating plan.

“Overall eating patterns appear to be more important for cancer prevention than intakes of specific nutrients or food groups. We hope this study will give us an indication of the benefits that a person’s diet can have on health, especially in terms of reducing the risk of colon cancer,” says Zora Djuric, Ph.D., research professor of family medicine at the U-M Medical School and principal investigator on the Healthy Eating for Colon Cancer Prevention study.


For the full article:

http://www.med.umich.edu/opm/n.....eddiet.htm
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu Jul 05, 2007 11:58 am    Post subject: Nobody's Swallowing Fed's $1 Billion of Nutrition Education Reply with quote

Nobody's Swallowing Fed's $1 Billion of Nutrition Education
By Martha Mendoza, Associated Press

posted: 05 July 2007 09:30 am ET

PANORAMA CITY, Calif. (AP)— The federal government will spend more than $1 billion this year on nutrition education—fresh carrot and celery snacks, videos of dancing fruit, hundreds of hours of lively lessons about how great you will feel if you eat well.

But an Associated Press review of scientific studies examining 57 such programs found mostly failure. Just four showed any real success in changing the way kids eat—or any promise as weapons against the growing epidemic of childhood obesity.

“Any person looking at the published literature about these programs would have to conclude that they are generally not working,” said Dr. Tom Baranowski, a pediatrics professor at Houston's Baylor College of Medicine who studies behavioral nutrition.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hea.....marts.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue Jul 10, 2007 7:50 am    Post subject: Study Reveals Diet's Heavy Role in Cancers Reply with quote

Study Reveals Diet's Heavy Role in Cancers
By Christopher Wanjek, LiveScience Bad Medicine Columnist

posted: 10 July 2007 12:29 am ET

China is at long last getting a taste of the West: cars, home electronics, meat with every meal, and, sadly, breast cancer.

A study published today in the July issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Preventions provides more results from the landmark Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, originally conducted in the 1990s by researchers at Vanderbilt University.

The study revealed that women in Shanghai who ate what the researchers called a "Western meat-sweet diet" heavy on meat, starches and sweets, more than doubled their risk of developing a main form of breast cancer, called estrogen-receptor-positive cancer, compared to their neighbors who ate a more traditional vegetable-soy-based diet, according to a team led by doctors at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia.

The pattern was particularly evident in overweight postmenopausal women, who likely gained the extra pounds from the meat-sweet diet, according to Dr. Marilyn Tseng of Fox Chance, who led the analysis of several thousand women ages 25 to 64.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hea.....nghai.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Wed Sep 19, 2007 1:16 pm    Post subject: Nutrition model stresses positive experience of eating Reply with quote

Penn State
19 September 2007

Nutrition model stresses positive experience of eating

Enjoying the eating process without focus on dietary restrictions may be key to managing weight and staying healthy, according to researchers who have unveiled a new and effective model for managing eating.

The Satter Eating Competence Model, also known as ecSatter, was created by Ellyn Satter, a registered dietitian, family therapist and author of “Secrets of Feeding a Healthy Family,” Kelcy Press.

Competent eaters are positive, flexible and comfortable with their eating habits and make it a priority to regularly provide themselves with enjoyable and nourishing food. They guide food intake based on the internal processes of hunger, appetite and satisfaction, and rely on the body’s innate ability to maintain a preferred and stable weight. Satter observes that the eating competence model cultivates effective eating attitudes and behavior by emphasizing permission and discipline:


The permission to choose food you enjoy and eat it in amounts you find satisfying.


The discipline to provide yourself with regular and reliable meals and snacks and to pay attention when you eat them.

Being eating competent appears to mirror overall-well being, notes Satter of Madison, Wis. People with high eating competence feel more effective, are more self-aware and are more trusting and comfortable both with themselves and with other people.

Barbara Lohse, associate professor of nutritional sciences at Penn State, directed the research on ecSatter. Lohse underscores the model’s attention to psychological and biological needs.

"Many of us have eating problems, because as children, we are forced into eating more or less food than we need. That is traumatic. Eating becomes a mindless activity invested with conflict and anxiety, and not something to be enjoyed. To overcome those feelings, you have to ignore how you feel about eating, just eat," said Lohse.

Research by Lohse and her Penn State colleagues suggests that people with high eating competence do better nutritionally, have healthier body weights, higher levels of good cholesterol and fewer of the components of “sticky plaque,” today’s high-tech approach to predicting the tendency to cardiovascular disease.

The Penn State researcher says ecSatter represents a fundamental shift from the conventional approach to eating management. "If it was successful to have people be uncomfortable and restrictive with what they eat, just going by the rules for the nutrients and calories they need, we would not have an obesity problem," said Lohse, whose findings appear this month (September/October) in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. "We need a different mindset: Weight is not the big issue, but rather being comfortable with how you eat," she added.

According to Satter and Lohse, there are four steps to competent eating:


Take time to eat, and provide yourself with rewarding meals and snacks at regular and reliable times.


Cultivate positive attitudes about eating and about food. Emphasize providing rather than depriving; seeking food rather than avoiding it.


Enjoy your eating, eat things you like, and let yourself be comfortable with and relaxed about what you eat. Enjoying eating supports the natural inclination to seek variety, the keystone of healthful food selection.


Pay attention to sensations of hunger and fullness to determine how much to eat. Go to the table hungry, eat until you feel satisfied, and then stop, knowing another meal or snack is coming soon when you can do it again.


###
The journal’s special section is partially funded by Penn State’s Department of Nutritional Sciences, the College of Health and Human Development and the Sunflower Foundation, Topeka, Kansas.

The Penn State Department of Nutritional Sciences is at http://nutrition.psu.edu/ online.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
A.C. Cajumban



Joined: 01 Sep 2007
Posts: 99
Location: Annalyn C. Cajumban

PostPosted: Wed Sep 19, 2007 4:14 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

It's great that we have these good information of diet manner.
I would like to ask you: What is the role of "Salt" to our daily food?
Since it is one of the most important ingridient of cooking, please to notify its effect to our healt cause of abuse use of it (or the salty food).
Thanks !
_________________
Psalm 37:4 Delight yourself in the LORD, and He will give you the desires of your heart.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website AIM Address Yahoo Messenger
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Wed Sep 19, 2007 5:31 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

A.C. Cajumban wrote:
It's great that we have these good information of diet manner.
I would like to ask you: What is the role of "Salt" to our daily food?
Since it is one of the most important ingridient of cooking, please to notify its effect to our healt cause of abuse use of it (or the salty food).
Thanks !


Here's a good place to start:

http://www.saltinstitute.org/4.html

And a more technical writeup regarding the salt controversy:

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/.....56Jl8nBVYU
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Sat Sep 29, 2007 8:05 am    Post subject: Fattening Carbs—Some Promote Obesity and Worse Reply with quote

Week of Sept. 29, 2007; Vol. 172, No. 13

Fattening Carbs—Some Promote Obesity and Worse
Janet Raloff

Nutritionists call them carbohydrates. To most of us, they're simply sugars and starches. And although the fructose in soft drinks and the refined flour in white bread taste quite different, "nutritionally and metabolically they're the same as table sugar," explains endocrinologist David S. Ludwig. That's because the body digests all carbohydrate-rich foods into glucose, or blood sugar.

For the full article:

http://sciencenews.org/articles/20070929/food.asp
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Dec 10, 2007 2:00 pm    Post subject: New research promises personalized dietary guidelines Reply with quote

New research promises personalized dietary guidelines
10 December 2007
Chemical & Engineering News

Better diets for fighting diabetes, obesity and heart disease may soon be only a finger-prick away. By analyzing the unique metabolic changes in an individual’s body, researchers hope to develop more personalized dietary guidelines for improving health, according to an article scheduled for the Dec. 10 issue of Chemical & Engineering News, ACS’ weekly newsmagazine.

In the article, C&EN Assistant Editor Carmen Drahl explains that not all people respond to diet in the same way: What makes some people healthy may in fact make others worse. Metabolomics, an emerging field whose practitioners study how foods affect metabolism, may provide new tools and data for customizing today’s one-size-fits-all dietary guidelines for an individual’s own body, the article notes. For example, a routine blood test that measures hundreds of compounds or more could detect shifts in a person’s metabolic balance to predict future health problems. Physicians then could develop a customized diet designed to work with that patient’s metabolism, while follow-up blood tests could allow caregivers to track improvements in a person’s health status, the article notes.

But the field is not quite ready for prime time. Academic and industry researchers alike are hard-at-work deciphering the complex science of how foods affect metabolism with the goal of building up a framework in which sound guidance for specifying personalized diet would become possible.

ARTICLE #5 EMBARGOED FOR 9 A.M., EASTERN TIME, Dec. 10, 2007
“Science Diet”

This story will be available on Dec. 10 at http://pubs.acs.org/cen/covers.....cover.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Wed Jan 09, 2008 11:35 am    Post subject: Experimental weight-loss drug cuts appetite, burns more ener Reply with quote

Cell Press
8 January 2008

Experimental weight-loss drug cuts appetite, burns more energy

The first clinical studies of an experimental drug have revealed that obese people who take it for 12 weeks lose weight, even at very low doses. Short-term studies also suggest that the drug, called taranabant—the second drug designed to fight obesity by blocking cannabinoid receptors in the brain—causes people to consume fewer calories and burn more, researchers report in the January issue of Cell Metabolism, a publication of Cell Press. Cannabinoid receptors are responsible for the psychological effects of marijuana (Cannabis sativa), and natural “endocannabinoids” are important regulators of energy balance.

“The effects of marijuana on appetite have been known for millennia from its medicinal and recreational use,” said study author Steven Heymsfield of Merck Research Laboratories. “The ingredient responsible stimulates cannabinoid receptors. When you block the cannabinoid system with an antagonist like taranabant, you suppress appetite.” However, the drug, developed by Merck, also comes with an increased risk of adverse side effects at higher doses, the study shows, including mild to moderate gastrointestinal and psychiatric effects.

The first proof of concept that so-called cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonists might offer an obesity therapy came from studies of another drug, developed by Sanofi-Aventis, called rimonabant. That drug is now in use for weight loss in several European countries as an adjunct to diet and exercise but has not received FDA approval for use in the United States.

Taranabant is a structurally novel, highly selective, potent CB1R inverse agonist, Heymsfield’s team said. Preclinical studies in animals showed that it can cause weight loss at doses that block just 30 percent of cannabinoid receptors. To extend those findings to humans in the new studies, the researchers first used positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to identify a dose that would bind about 30 percent of cannabinoid receptors in the human brain. They found that 4 to 6 milligrams of taranabant was enough to achieve that goal.

A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial including 533 obese patients showed that the drug induces significant weight loss at doses ranging from 0.5 to 6 milligrams. “That was surprising,” Heymsfield said. “We didn’t expect weight loss at all doses.”

The researchers then conducted separate food intake and energy expenditure studies in overweight and moderately obese people who took a single 4- or 12-milligram dose of taranabant. Those studies showed that people taking 12 milligrams of the drug consumed 27 percent fewer calories than those taking a placebo. People taking the drug also expended more energy while at rest and appeared to burn more fat.

The studies also found that higher doses of the drug caused two types of adverse events, Heymsfield said. These negative side effects included gastrointestinal upset, including nausea and vomiting, as well as increased irritability. Marijuana is often used to combat the nausea associated with chemotherapy drugs, Heymsfield noted, and it also tends to make people mellower. “Here, again, [these drugs] have the opposite effect.”

A larger, phase III clinical trial of taranabant is now underway to further explore its effects, Heymsfield said. “All we have here is 12 weeks; we don’t yet know what will happen at six months or a year.”
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Wed Jan 23, 2008 1:11 pm    Post subject: Einstein researchers: Do national dietary guidelines do more Reply with quote

Albert Einstein College of Medicine
22 January 2008

Einstein researchers: Do national dietary guidelines do more harm than good?

(BRONX, NY) – For nearly three decades, Americans have become accustomed to hearing about the latest dietary guidelines, which are required by federal regulation to be revised and reissued at five-year intervals. Mid-way to the drafting of the 2010 guidelines, researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University raise questions about the benefits of federal dietary guidelines, and urge that guideline writers be guided by explicit standards of evidence to ensure the public good. The researchers, led by Paul Marantz, M.D., MPH, associate dean for clinical research education at Einstein, outline their argument in the January 22 online edition of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

“When dietary guidelines were initially introduced in the late 1970s, their population-based approach was especially attractive since it was presumed to carry little risk,” says Dr. Marantz, who also is professor of epidemiology and population health, and of medicine at Einstein. “However, the message delivered by these guidelines might actually have had a negative impact on health, including our current obesity epidemic. The possibility that these dietary guidelines might actually be endangering health is at the core of our concern about the way guidelines are currently developed and issued.”

Dr. Marantz and colleagues argue that if guidelines can alter behavior, such alteration could have positive or negative effects. They cite how, in 2000, the Dietary Guideline Advisory Committee suggested that the recommendation to lower fat, advised in the 1995 guidelines, had perhaps been ill-advised and might actually have some potential harm. The committee noted concern that “the previous priority given to a ‘low-fat intake’ may lead people to believe that, as long as fat intake is low, the diet will be entirely healthful. This belief could engender an overconsumption of total calories in the form of carbohydrates, resulting in the adverse metabolic consequences of high-carbohydrate diets,” the committee wrote, while also noting that “an increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States has corresponded roughly with an absolute increase in carbohydrate consumption.”

Dr. Marantz and colleagues present data that support these trends; however, they are careful to note that this temporal association does not prove causation. Instead, says Dr. Marantz, “it raises the possibility of a net harmful effect of seemingly innocuous dietary advice. These dietary recommendations did not necessarily cause harm, but there is a realistic possibility that they may have.”

“As doctors, our first call is to do no harm,” he adds. “That’s why we recommend that guidelines be generous in providing information, but more cautious in giving direction. Any directions should be based on the very highest standards of scientific evidence. After all, we expect that much from pharmaceutical companies before they bring a new drug to market.”


###
Other Einstein researchers contributing to the paper are Michael Alderman, M.D., professor of epidemiology and population health and of medicine, and Elizabeth Bird.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Mar 31, 2008 2:39 pm    Post subject: Recipe for Health Reply with quote

Recipe for Health
Emily Sohn

April 2, 2008

Everybody wants to be healthy, but today's world is full of roadblocks. You know you should eat broccoli, for example, but it's a lot easier to buy French fries (and they taste better). You know you should exercise, but your friends are playing video games.
For many people, the temptation to indulge is irresistible. But all of that indulging is catching up with us.

For the full article:

http://www.sciencenewsforkids......ature1.asp
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic   Reply to topic   printer-friendly view    USAP PAETE Forum Index -> Science Lessons Forum All times are GMT - 5 Hours
Page 1 of 1

 
Jump to:  
You can post new topics in this forum
You can reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2005 phpBB Group