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(Health) Vegetables: Veggies May Protect Against Cancer

 
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adedios
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 10, 2006 11:48 am    Post subject: (Health) Vegetables: Veggies May Protect Against Cancer Reply with quote






FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: February 9, 2006

Research: Veggies May Protect Against Cancer
Source: Georgetown University Medical Center


Washington, D.C. -- Need another reason to eat your vegetables? New research shows that some of them contain chemicals that appear to enhance DNA repair in cells, which could lead to protection against cancer development, say Georgetown University Medical Center researchers.

In a study published in the British Journal of Cancer (published by the research journal Nature) the researchers show that in laboratory tests, a compound called indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage, and a chemical called genistein, found in soy beans, can increase the levels of BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins that repair damaged DNA.

Although the health benefits of eating your vegetables—especially cruciferous ones, such as broccoli—aren’t particularly new, this study is one of the first to provide a molecular explanation as to how eating vegetables could cut a person’s risk of developing cancer, an association that some population studies have found, says the study’s senior author, Eliot M. Rosen, MD, PhD, professor of oncology, cell biology, and radiation medicine at Georgetown’s Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center.

“It is now clear that the function of crucial cancer genes can be influenced by compounds in the things we eat,” Rosen says. “Our findings suggest a clear molecular process that would explain the connection between diet and cancer prevention.”

In this study, Rosen exposed breast and prostate cancer cells to increasing doses of 13C and genistein, and found that these chemicals boosted production of BRCA1, as well as its sister repair protein, BRCA2. Mutations in either of these genes can lead to development of breast, prostate and ovarian cancers.

Since decreased amounts of the BRCA proteins are seen in cancer cells, higher levels might prevent cancer from developing, Rosen says, adding that the ability of I3C and genistein to increase production of BRCA proteins could explain their protective effects.

The study was funded by the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation and the National Cancer Institute and co-authors include Drs. Saijun Fan, MD, PhD, Qinghui Meng, MS, Karen Auborn, PhD, and Timothy Carter, PhD.


About Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center

The Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, part of Georgetown University Medical Center and Georgetown University Hospital, seeks to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer through innovative basic and clinical research, patient care, community education and outreach, and the training of cancer specialists of the future. Lombardi is one of only 39 comprehensive cancer centers in the nation, as designated by the National Cancer Institute, and the only one in the Washington, DC, area. For more information, go to http://lombardi.georgetown.edu

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Related Lessons (Elementary Level)


http://www.sciencenetlinks.com.....;DocID=376
http://www.sciencenetlinks.com.....;DocID=377

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Questions to explore further this topic:

How are vegetables classified?

http://www.mypyramid.gov/pyramid/vegetables.html
http://food.oregonstate.edu/learn/fruitveg.html

The following is an image gallery of vegetables (showing size of servings)

http://www.mypyramid.gov/pyram.....inach.html
http://www.thinkvegetables.co.uk/

The following is a website that groups vegetables according to:
Bulbs | Flowers | Brassica | Fruits | Chilies | Cucumbers | Squashes | Tomatoes | Fungi | Leaves & Stems | Legumes | Roots | Tubers


http://www.vegetables.co.nz/ab.....cation.php
http://commhum.mccneb.edu/fstd.....tables.htm

Asian fruits and vegetables

http://www.sci-ctr.edu.sg/ssc/.....ontent.jsp
http://www.ku.ac.th/AgrInfo/fruit/veget/
http://www.agric.nsw.gov.au/Ho.....index.html

Philippine vegetables

http://www.tribo.org/vegetables/sampler.html
http://www.ppi.org.ph/publicat.....dustry.htm
http://www.manilatimes.net/nat.....3bus8.html

Why are fruits and vegetables important in one's diet?

http://www.5aday.gov/why/index.html
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nu.....ruits.html
http://www.fda.gov/fdac/featur....._five.html

What should you know regarding the safe handling of vegetables?

http://www.ext.colostate.edu/p.....00630.html
http://s142412519.onlinehome.us/uw/pdfs/B1159.PDF
http://s142412519.onlinehome.us/uw/pdfs/B3278.PDF
http://hgic.clemson.edu/factsheets/HGIC3063.htm

How are vegetables grown?

http://www.agric.nsw.gov.au/reader/vegetables
http://www.farm-garden.com/growing-vegetables
http://oregonstate.edu/Dept/NWREC/vegindex.html
http://gardenline.usask.ca/veg/index.html
http://www.ext.vt.edu/cgi-bin/.....?cat=ir-fv

What vegetables are currently believed to fight cancer?

http://bexar-tx.tamu.edu/HomeH.....SEPT14.htm
http://www.slu.edu/readstory/more/4836
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/3900679.stm
http://www.oralcancerfoundatio.....rition.htm
http://lslw.stanford.edu/11Foods.html

What are cruciferous vegetables?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broccoli
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cruciferae
http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/inf.....index.html

A newsletter on vegetables

http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/Dp_fnut/Gazette.htm

A lesson plan on fruits and vegetables for primary schools

http://its.gcsnc.com/webquests/fruitveg/plants.htm

History of vegetables

http://www.lsu.edu/horticultur.....sld001.htm

A book on vegetable carving

http://www.chipsbooks.com/compveg.htm

GAMES

http://www.learnenglish.org.uk.....ema02.html
http://www.manythings.org/cts/8998.html
http://www.manythings.org/wf/2/vegetables.html


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 4:52 pm; edited 3 times in total
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adedios
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PostPosted: Sun May 21, 2006 9:20 am    Post subject: 'Super Broccoli' Reply with quote

University of Warwick
19 May 2006

'Super Broccoli' takes brassica family to Chelsea Flower Show

Warwick HRI, the University of Warwick's plant research Department, has created a stand at the world famous RHS Chelsea Flower Show in London this week. However the star exhibit in their garden won't be multicoloured flowers or a soothing water feature. The Warwick HRI stand will show how far scientists have reached in breeding a range of "Super Broccoli" and its wider brassica family which will: help us live longer, last longer on our shelves, and use much less pesticide and fertilizer.
The stand will have a range of plants from the brassica family, broccoli and oilseed rape being the most important commercial crops. Breeding better crops entails crossing plants which possess the best properties, usually from within the same crop (for instance restricting oneself to just cross breeding broccoli with another type of broccoli). However, this approach misses out the vast range of useful properties in the larger brassica family.

The Warwick HRI researchers are well equipped to change that situation as they have one of the largest gene banks of vegetable brassicas in the world. With over 6,000 plants in the gene bank the Warwick HRI research teams have an invaluable resource enabling them to carry out their research. This breeding work on broccoli alone is on course to transform it into a super plant in the following ways:

Environmentally friendly Super Broccoli - Researchers have identified cross breeding possibilities that will give broccoli much greater resistance to two of its greatest threats - aphids and the bacteria Xanthomonas campestris. This will vastly reduce the amount of pesticides that have to be used on broccoli. This breeding programme will probably be complete within a decade.

Longer lasting Super Broccoli - Broccoli is one of the most difficult vegetables to keep fresh. Supermarkets find this particularly annoying as most of their vegetables are brought in on a 4 day cycle whilst broccoli's feeble shelf life means it is out of phase with other vegetable deliveries as it requires its own 3 day cycle. Adding just one more day to its shelf life would make customers happier and supermarkets would be overjoyed. The researchers have already taken the first steps to cross breed broccoli with a longer shelf life and expect the first commercially available varieties to be hitting shelves (and staying longer on them......) again within a decade.

Super Broccoli makes longer lasting humans - Broccoli is a rich source of antioxidants which have a number of health properties including defending against cancers. However broccoli's short shelf life means those important antioxidants quickly break down and can lose much of their power before being consumed. The cross breeding programme creating longer shelf life will also ensure the antioxidants remain potent for longer.

Oilseed rape oils the wheels of industry - Another member of the brassica family - Oilseed rape - is playing a key role in providing biodegradable oils that can be used to manufacture a range of environmentally favourable products. However the range of special designer oils available from this plant source is limited. The Warwick HRI team have begun to experiment with expanding the range of designer oils available by cross breeding the oil seed rape with other brassicas. Being able to produce designer oils from carbon neutral vegetation is crucial to sustainable manufacturing.

Even Super Broccoli needs bodyguards - As well as a programme of cross breeding the University of Warwick stand will show a selection of companion plants that can be grown alongside broccoli. These plants will not impact on the growth of the broccoli but they act as a major diversion for pests that would otherwise attack the broccoli.
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 02, 2006 7:15 am    Post subject: UCLA/LSU study details nutritional value of salad Reply with quote

University of California - Los Angeles
1 September 2006

UCLA/LSU study details nutritional value of salad

Go ahead and indulge at the salad bar. "Rabbit food" is nutritious for people, too.

A new UCLA/Louisiana State University study of dietary data on more than 17,500 men and women finds consumption of salad and raw vegetables correlates with higher concentrations of folic acid, vitamins C and E, lycopene and alpha and beta carotene in the bloodstream.

Published in the September edition of the peer-reviewed Journal of the American Dietetic Association, the study also suggests that each serving of salad consumed correlates with a 165 percent higher likelihood of meeting recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for vitamin C in women and 119 percent greater likelihood in men.

The study is the first to examine the relationship between normal salad consumption and nutrient levels in the bloodstream, and also the first to examine the dietary adequacy of salad consumption using the latest nutritional guidelines of the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences.

The findings blunt concerns about the human body's ability to absorb nutrients from raw vegetables, as well as concern that the structure and characteristics of some plants undercut nutritional value.

"The consistently higher levels of certain nutrients in the bloodstream of salad-eaters suggest these important components of a healthy diet are being well-absorbed from salad," said Lenore Arab, visiting professor of epidemiology at the UCLA School of Public Health and co-author of the study with L. Joseph Su, assistant professor at the LSU School of Public Health.

"The findings endorse consumption of salad and raw vegetables as an effective strategy for increasing intake of important nutrients. Unfortunately, we also found daily salad consumption is not the norm in any group, and is even less prevalent among African Americans," Arab said.

"We have so many food choices in this county. Increasing vegetable consumption is a wise strategy for composing a nutrient rich diet," she added. "In fact, our findings suggest that eating just one serving of salad or raw vegetables per day significantly boosts the likelihood of meeting the recommended daily intake of certain nutrients."

The study examined the relationship between reported salad consumption and blood serum nutrient levels, as well as dietary adequacy in pre- and post-menopausal women and men of comparable ages. The research team analyzed dietary data from 9,406 women and 8,282 men ages 18 to 45 and 55-plus contained in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III conducted in 1988-94.

Salad consumption was based on reported intake of salad, raw vegetables and salad dressing. Laboratory measurements determined levels of nutrients in blood serum. Associations between salad consumption and serum nutrient levels were determined using statistical regression models. Measurements were adjusted to account for age, exercise, anti-cholesterol medication, smoking and other variables.


###
The research was funded by an educational research grant from The Association for Dressings and Sauces.

The UCLA School of Public Health is dedicated to enhancing the public's health by conducting innovative research, training future leaders and health professionals, translating research into policy and practice, and serving local, national and international communities. For more information, see http://www.ph.ucla.edu/
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PostPosted: Tue Sep 05, 2006 2:09 pm    Post subject: In Japan, Even Children Love The Vegetables Reply with quote

In Japan, Even Children Love The Vegetables

By Christopher Wanjek
LiveScience’s Bad Medicine Columnist
posted: 05 September 2006
02:15 pm ET

FUKUOKA, Japan—Once outside of Tokyo, a raucous anomaly within Japan, one quickly gains the sense that the Land of the Rising Sun is also the land of the small, local farm.

Here in Fukuoka, Japan's seventh largest city, acres upon acres of tranquil rice fields and farms are tucked between houses and temples in the shadows of skyscrapers no more than ten miles away.

In a climate roughly similar to coastal Virginia's, family farms grow fruit and vegetables nearly year-round to feed this hungry city of 1.3 million. In the suburbs, where the local farms are more abundant, consumers often will have vegetables with dinner that were picked that morning. In supermarkets in the heart of Fukuoka City, it is not uncommon to have vegetables harvested the day before.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....rming.html
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PostPosted: Mon Sep 25, 2006 7:38 pm    Post subject: Scientists Eye Benefits of Spinach Reply with quote

Scientists Eye Benefits of Spinach

By Andrea Thompson
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 25 September 2006
03:31 pm ET



In the wake of the E. coli outbreak in which dozens of Americans were poisoned by tainted spinach, consumers might be weighing the vegetable's benefits against the risks of contamination.

Spinach is known for its high fiber content and its abundance of antioxidants and vitamins that studies have shown might decrease the risk of stroke and developing cataracts. The leafy green that gave Popeye his fictional super-strength might also promote super-sharp eyesight in the real world.

Green vegetables like spinach, kale and broccoli are particularly rich in two antioxidants called lutein and zeaxanthin that produce a substance which scientists think helps protect the eyes against age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of irreversible blindness in Western societies. Researchers at the University of Manchester announced today that they are now using a new device to investigate whether the substance can help people who already suffer from the disease.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....h_amd.html
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PostPosted: Wed Apr 18, 2007 11:50 am    Post subject: Researcher Focuses on Pros, Cons of Antioxidants from Fruits Reply with quote

April 17, 2007
Researcher Focuses on Pros, Cons of Antioxidants from Fruits and Vegetables
Writer: Linda Anderson


COLLEGE STATION – Nutrition: It's not just the four basic food groups any more.

Researcher Dr. Susanne Mertens-Talcott of Texas A&M University is looking into how plant-based phytochemicals, including antioxidants and herbal supplements, can be useful in the promotion of health and prevention of chronic diseases.

This field is still growing. In the U.S. more than $20 billion was spent on dietary supplements in 2005, said Talcott, who is in a joint research and teaching position with the department of nutrition and food science and the department of veterinary physiology and pharmacology.

For the full article, links, video:

http://agnews.tamu.edu/dailyne.....r1707a.htm
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PostPosted: Tue May 15, 2007 9:23 am    Post subject: Research Says Boiling Broccoli Ruins Its Anti Cancer Propert Reply with quote

Research Says Boiling Broccoli Ruins Its Anti Cancer Properties
University of Warwick
15 May 2007

Researchers at the University of Warwick have found that the standard British cooking habit of boiling vegetables severely damages the anticancer properties of many Brassica vegetables such as broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cauliflower and green cabbage.

Past studies have shown that consumption of Brassica vegetables decreases the risk of cancer. This is because of the high concentration in Brassicas of substances known as glucosinolates which are metabolized to cancer preventive substances known as isothiocyanates. However before this research it was not known how the glucosinolates and isothiocyanates were influenced by storage and cooking of Brassica vegetables.

The researchers, Prof Paul Thornalley from Warwick Medical School at the University of Warwick and Dr Lijiang Song from the University of Warwick’s Department of Chemistry bought Brassica vegetables, (broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cauliflower and green cabbage) from a local store and transported them to the laboratory within 30 minutes of purchasing. The effect of cooking on the glucosinolate content of vegetables was then studied by investigating the effects of cooking by boiling, steaming, microwave cooking and stir-fry.

Boiling appeared to have a serious impact on the retention of those important glucosinolate within the vegetables. The loss of total glucosinolate content after boiling for 30 minutes was: broccoli 77%, Brussel sprouts 58%, cauliflower 75% and green cabbage 65%.

The effects of other cooking methods were investigated: steaming for 0–20 min, microwave cooking for 0–3 min and stir-fry cooking for 0–5 min. All three methods gave no significant loss of total glucosinolate analyte contents over these cooking periods.

Domestic storage of the vegetables at ambient temperature and in a domestic refrigerator showed no significant difference with only minor loss of glucosinolate levels over 7 days.

However the researchers found that storage of fresh vegetables at much lower temperatures such as −85 °C (much higher than for storage in a refrigerator at 4–8 °C) may cause significant loss of glucosinolates up to 33% by fracture of vegetable material during thawing.

The researchers found that preparation of Brassica vegetables had caused only minor reductions in glucosinolate except when they were shredded finely which showed a marked decline of glucosinolate levels with a loss of up to 75% over 6 hours after shredding.

Professor Thornalley said: "If you want to get the maximum benefit from your five portions-a-day vegetable consumption, if you are cooking your vegetables boiling is out. You need to consider stir frying steaming or micro-waving them."Broadcast quality TV footage on this story will be available from a Research-TV VNR available from APTN today Tuesday 15th March , 12:15-12:30 GMT details on how to obtain that footage are available from http://www.research-tv.com/
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PostPosted: Mon Dec 24, 2007 3:48 pm    Post subject: Culinary shocker: Cooking can preserve, boost nutrient conte Reply with quote

Culinary shocker: Cooking can preserve, boost nutrient content of vegetables
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
24 December 2007

In a finding that defies conventional culinary wisdom, researchers in Italy report that cooking vegetables can preserve or even boost their nutritional value in comparison to their raw counterparts, depending on the cooking method used. Their study is scheduled for the Dec. 26 issue of ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, a bi-weekly publication.

Nicoletta Pellegrini and colleagues note that although many people maintain that eating raw vegetables is more nutritious than eating cooked ones, a small but growing number of studies suggest that cooking may actually increase the release of some nutrients. However, scientists are seeking more complete data on the nutritional properties of cooked vegetables, the researchers say.

In the new study, the researchers evaluated the effects of three commonly-used Italian cooking practices — boiling, steaming, and frying — on the nutritional content of carrots, zucchini and broccoli. Boiling and steaming maintained the antioxidant compounds of the vegetables, whereas frying caused a significantly higher loss of antioxidants in comparison to the water-based cooking methods, they say. For broccoli, steaming actually increased its content of glucosinolates, a group of plant compounds touted for their cancer-fighting abilities. The findings suggest that it may be possible to select a cooking method for each vegetable that can best preserve or improve its nutritional quality, the researchers say. — MTS

ARTICLE #2 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE “Effects of Different Cooking Methods on Nutritional and Physicochemical Characteristics of Selected Vegetables”

DOWNLOAD PDF http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....72304b.pdf
DOWNLOAD HTML http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....2304b.html
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