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(Health) Infant Nutrition

 
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adedios
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PostPosted: Sun Apr 09, 2006 7:04 am    Post subject: (Health) Infant Nutrition Reply with quote






Kellen Communications
6 April 2006

Key nutrients critical for older infants' development

Conference at Experimental Biology explores advances in infant feeding over past 25 years
SAN FRANCISCO (April 6, 2006) – According to Nancy Krebs, M.D., a professor of Pediatrics at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and former Chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Nutrition, it can be difficult to meet the nutritional needs of older infants. Since human milk alone is no longer adequate to meet infant nutritional requirements after 6 months of age, the importance of complementary foods was stressed. In older infants, Krebs showed that meat could be a critical complementary food for providing recommended zinc and iron levels.
John L. Beard, Ph.D., a professor of Nutritional Sciences at Pennsylvania State University, stressed iron is critical in the developing nervous system. "All data to date, in three species, suggest a critical period exists in early life that requires the adequate delivery of iron to the brain," he said.

Krebs and Beard, along with other international and U.S. speakers presented yesterday to nutrition scientists at the Experimental Biology* meeting. The special session, Advances in Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Infants Worldwide, highlighted achievements and challenges in infant nutrition and health outcomes over the past quarter-century, stressed the importance of breastfeeding infants in the first six months of life and also provided an overview of opportunities for further research and progress.

Kim F. Michaelsen, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of Human Nutrition at the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in Denmark described improved breastfeeding rates over the past 25 years as well as the benefits of human milk. In a new analysis of United States Agency for International Development data from 20 developing countries, Bernadette M. Marriott, Ph.D., from RTI International, confirmed the high prevalence of breastfeeding throughout the first year of life yet also noted the common use of water, sweetened beverages, and solid foods as well as the less common use of animal milks and infant formulas over this same period in these countries.

As noted by the AAP in its 2005 Policy Statement Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk, "Infants weaned before 12 months of age should not receive cow's milk but should receive iron-fortified infant formula." Conference participants, moderated by William C. Heird, M.D., professor of Pediatrics, Children's Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine, underscored the importance of nutrition throughout infancy, particularly the need to improve the nutritional quality of complementary foods in older infants' diets. In that respect, Dr. Heird noted the progress made in infant formulas with the addition of important nutrients like taurine, carnitine, nucleotides, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids over the past 25 years.


###
Note to Editors: Experimental Biology is a multi-society, interdisciplinary, scientific meeting attended by 12,000 independent scientists and sponsored by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). This research was presented as part of the American Society for Nutrition section of FASEB on April 5.

*This conference was sponsored by the International Formula Council (IFC), an international association of manufacturers and marketers of formulated nutrition products (e.g., infant formulas and adult nutritionals) whose members are predominantly based in North America. IFC members include all U.S. manufacturers: Mead Johnson Nutritionals; Nestle USA, Inc., Nutrition Division; PBM Products; Ross Products Division, Abbott Laboratories; Solus Products; and Wyeth Nutrition.

*************************************************************

Questions to explore further this topic:

Mother's nutrition during pregnancy

http://www.uri.edu/ce/efnep/Pregnutr.htm
http://www.nutrition.org.uk/ho.....mp;which=1
http://www.epa.gov/waterscienc.....ochure.pdf
http://www.ext.colostate.edu/P.....09372.html

Mother's nutrition during breast feeding

http://www.macdonaldwomenshosp.....?PageId=79
http://rehydrate.org/breastfee.....rition.htm
http://www.medem.com/MedLB/art.....sub_cat=20
http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/p.....ea-bre.pdf

Newborns and feeding

http://www.nutritionnc.com/bre.....ewborn.htm
http://www.umext.maine.edu/onl.....s/4061.pdf
http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs.....cs3130.htm
http://lancaster.unl.edu/food/ftoct01.htm
http://www.medem.com/MedLB/art.....sub_cat=20
http://www.medem.com/MedLB/art.....sub_cat=20

Food safety for infants

http://www.hini.org/HINI/pdfs/InTouchVol22_4.pdf
http://hgic.clemson.edu/factsheets/HGIC3640.htm
http://www.fns.usda.gov/tn/Res.....s-ch10.pdf

Infant nutrition: one to six months

http://www.nutritionnc.com/bre.....etosix.htm
http://www.medem.com/MedLB/art.....sub_cat=20
http://www.kidshealth.org/pare.....ed13m.html
http://www.kidshealth.org/pare.....ed47m.html
http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs.....cs3145.pdf
http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs.....cs3131.htm
http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs.....cs3134.htm
http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs.....cs3136.htm

Infant nutrition: six to twelve months

http://www.nutritionnc.com/bre.....etosix.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/he.....ant1.shtml
http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs.....cs3149.pdf
http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs.....cs3139.htm
http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs.....cs3140.htm
http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs.....cs3141.htm
http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs.....cs3142.htm

Twelve to twenty four months

http://www.hini.org/HINI/pdfs/InTouchVol19_4.pdf
http://www.kidshealth.org/pare.....d12yr.html
http://www.eatright.org/cps/rd.....U_HTML.htm
http://www.eatright.org/cps/rd.....U_HTML.htm

What are the benefits of breast feeding?

http://www.4woman.gov/Breastfe.....m?page=227
http://www.womenshealth.gov/Br.....?page=home
http://www.who.int/child-adole.....lusive.htm
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/dca.....o_bf_e.pdf

The basics of breast feeding

http://www.nutritionnc.com/bre.....basics.htm
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/dca.....ding_e.pdf

The basics of bottle feeding

http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/p.....ttlefe.pdf
http://www.state.sd.us/doh/Nutrition/bottle.pdf
http://www.ucihealth.com/mater.....eeding.htm
http://www.verybestbaby.com/co.....5757174154

Burping the baby

http://www.kidshealth.org/pare.....rping.html
http://www.medem.com/MedLB/art.....ub_cat=549
http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/p.....t/burp.pdf

What is finger feeding?

http://www.bflrc.com/newman/br.....ngfeed.htm

How to introduce a cup

http://www.uri.edu/ce/efnep/In.....%20Cup.htm
http://www.verybestbaby.com/co.....1575717469

When should breast feeding be avoided?

http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeedi.....cators.htm

Questions some women ask regarding breast feeding

http://www.nutritionnc.com/bre.....estion.htm

What is weaning?

http://www.nutritionnc.com/bre.....eaning.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/he.....guidelines
http://www.babycentre.co.uk/refcap/3272.html

Introducing solid food

http://www.ucsfhealth.org/chil.....olids.html
http://www.fns.usda.gov/tn/Res.....s-ch11.pdf
http://www.health.gov.ab.ca/pu.....Solids.pdf
http://www.fns.usda.gov/tn/Res.....s-ch12.pdf
http://www.mayoclinic.com/heal.....by/PR00029
http://www.ext.colostate.edu/p...../09358.pdf

Breast milk versus formula

http://www.fda.gov/opacom/lowlit/feedbby.pdf
http://www.noah-health.org/en/.....ottle.html

Breast milk substitutes for special situations

http://www.hini.org/HINI/pdfs/InTouchVol22_2.pdf
http://www.hini.org/HINI/pdfs/InTouchVol21_2.pdf

Vegetarian babies

http://www.vegsoc.org/info/infant.html
http://www.hini.org/HINI/pdfs/InTouchVol22_3.pdf

What are the key nutrients for infants?

http://farleyscloserbynature.c.....ained.aspx
http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/co.....33/9/2950S
http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/co.....33/9/3011S

Malnutrition in infants

http://www.hini.org/HINI/pdfs/InTouchVol19_3.pdf

Choking prevention

http://www.medem.com/MedLB/art.....ub_cat=104

GAMES

http://www.nutritionexploratio.....s-main.asp
http://www.nutritionexploratio.....ittled.asp
http://www.nutritionexploratio.....n-main.asp


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 4:39 pm; edited 2 times in total
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PostPosted: Wed May 03, 2006 10:35 am    Post subject: Poor nutrition kills 5.6 M children worldwide each year Reply with quote

Poor nutrition kills 5.6 M children worldwide each year -- UNICEF
Manila Bulletin
3 May 2006

UNITED NATIONS (AP) -- Poor nutrition contributes to the deaths of some 5.6 million children every year and the world has fallen far short in efforts to reduce hunger by half before 2015, the U.N.Children's Fund said Tuesday.

The finding, announced in a UNICEF report, was the latest evidence the United Nations is not on pace to meet the Millennium Development Goals, a series of targets set out in 2000 to spur development and reduce poverty and hunger worldwide.

In its report, UNICEF said one of every four children under age 5, including 146 million children in the developing world, is underweight.

``At our current pace, we will not meet the promise of the Millennium Development Goals,'' UNICEF Executive Director Ann Veneman said. ``I think that frankly, we need a sense of urgency about all of the (goals). We know what needs to be done. We know how to make progress.''

The report defines ``undernutrition'' as the combination of hunger and repeated infectious diseases. It includes being underweight, too short, too thin and lacking in vitamins and minerals.

The most troublesome area in the world is South Asia, where 46 percent of children are underweight. India, Bangladesh and Pakistan account for half of the world's underweight children even though they have only 30 percent of the world's population of children under 5.

Veneman also said that poor nutrition, particularly the lack of iodine, is diminishing the brainpower of children worldwide, sometimes by several IQ points.
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PostPosted: Fri May 05, 2006 8:56 am    Post subject: RP ranks 9th in child undernourishment--Unicef Reply with quote

http://news.inq7.net/breaking/.....y_id=74813


RP ranks 9th in child undernourishment--Unicef
First posted 09:08pm (Mla time) May 05, 2006
By Veronica Uy
INQ7.net


THE Philippines ranks ninth among 10 developing nations where the most number of underweight children below five years old can be found, the United Nations Children’s Fund said in a report.
In its “Progress for Children: A Report Card on Nutrition” released Friday, Unicef also described the country's progress in relation to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) on child nutrition as “insufficient.”

India leads the list with 57 million underweight children under five, followed by Bangladesh and Pakistan (both with eight million each), China (seven million), Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Indonesia (each with six million), Democratic Republic of the Congo (three million), and Vietnam (two million).

The Philippines has three million under-five children who are underweight. This child nutrition indicator includes moderate to severe cases from 1996 to 2005. Thirty percent of the age group suffer from stunting or being too short for one’s age while six percent have been classified as wasted or dangerously thin.

“This should serve as a challenge for the country to build a system and mechanism capable of implementing comprehensive nutrition interventions supported by all key players,” said Dr. Nicholas Alipui, Unicef Country Representative, in a statement e-mailed to media organizations.

The Unicef report said the Philippines' average annual rate of reduction (AARR), which measures progress in fulfillment of the goal for underweight children under-five, is 0.9 percent, or not even half the required 2.8 percent constant AARR for all countries.

Progress for Children, the first comprehensive, country by country account on the state of child nutrition, warns that unless the Philippines fast-tracks improvement on nutrition, it will not achieve the MDG target on the set deadline.

One of the goals aims to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger includes reducing the proportion of underweight children below five years old by half in 2015. The MDGs have been adopted by member-states of the United Nations, including the Philippines.

Other nutrition indicators for the Philippines reported in Progress for Children include the following: 20 percent of Filipino infants have low birth weights; 34 percent of babies are exclusively breastfed for six months; 76 percent of children between six and 59 months have vitamin A supplementation; and, 56 percent of households consume iodized salt.

“The interventions which have been proven effective through the years to combat undernutrition consist of the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding for the six months and continued breastfeeding with complementary foods for two years and beyond, vitamin A supplementation, the iodization of salt, and the fortification of staple foods,” Alipui said.

Unicef also advocates nutrition interventions for women before they conceive and during their pregnancies, and children under two years old.

In the statement, Unicef cited findings in molecular biology which confirmed that major, irreversible damages are caused by malnutrition in the womb, and during the first two years of the child’s life.

Undernutrition, the outcome of insufficient food intake (hunger) and repeated infectious diseases, has been the underlying cause of deaths of 5.6 million (53 percent) children under-five worldwide.
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PostPosted: Sun Jun 11, 2006 10:40 am    Post subject: What malnutrition does to Filipino school kids Reply with quote

What malnutrition does
to Filipino school kids


By The Manila Times Research staff
11 June 2006

MILLIONS of Filipino children go to school without proper or enough nutrients and energy to help them through the day. Getting through the work and learning of a day in school can be fun for a well-fed pupil. It is usually painful for a malnourished child.

Of every 100 primary school-age children, 26 were underweight and 37 were underheight or short, the latest nutrition survey (2003) done by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the Department of Science and Technology.

“Being underheight or short reflects current malnutrition or a long-standing poor nutritional status,” the research institute said.

This was an improvement over the finding that 33 out of every 100 were underweight and 41 out of every 100 were underheight in 2001.

Being underweight means a child’s weight relative to her/his age is less than that of a normal child and being underheight or short means his/her height is less than that of a normal child of the same age. On the other hand, being overweight—which is another sign of malnutrition—is when a child’s weight is much more than that of a normal child of the same age.

The 1998 National Nutrition Survey conducted by FNRI-DOST saw four malnutrition problems of Filipino children—protein-energy malnutrition, iron deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency and iodine deficiency disorders.

Dr. Ma. Veritas Fajos-Luna, chairman and associate professor of the Department of Food and Nutrition at the University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD), explained that being protein-energy malnourished means that the children do not have enough calories to burn, especially for physical and mental activities.

“The truth here is that Filipinos consume more than 100 percent of the recommended daily allowance for protein but it’s the calories that we are lacking,” Fojas-Luna said. She says calories from carbohydrates are the main sources of energy.

Based on the dietary survey done every five years by FNRI, only protein meets the corresponding recommended daily allowance (RDA) at 106.2 percent while energy is 87.8 percent of RDA, and intakes of vitamins and minerals remain “grossly inadequate,” which ranges from 57.1 percent to 88.1 percent.

“However, since we lack enough calories to burn, our body turns to the proteins that we consume as its source of energy,” Fojas-Luna said. Because most of the proteins are burnt by the body for energy, the nutrient is not able to do its main function of building and rebuilding muscles and tissues.

“This is why malnourished children are stunted and thin,” she said. “They do not build muscles and bones to grow tall and strong,” she said.

Since the body’s proteins are depleted to create of energy, children also cannot fight infection and combat diseases, which is also one function of proteins. Proteins are what keep the immune system healthy. “These children easily get sick. They are often absent from school. They do not perform well in mental and physical activities,” Fojas-Luna said.

Filipinos have low mineral intake, as the dietary survey shows, and because of this many children are afflicted with iron deficiency anemia. According to Fojas-Luna, iron helps in manufacturing red blood cells that bring oxygen to all parts of the body.

“If a child has low red blood cell count, he or she easily gets tired, has no interest in learning or class activities owing to his feeling of fatigue. And he or she cannot concentrate on lectures,” the nutrition professor said.

Iodine deficiency affects the thyroid gland. Iodine is needed to produce hormones needed by the body for various functions. Since the thyroid becomes hyperactive when it tries to capture even minute amounts of iodine in the body, it becomes enlarged. That is goiter, Fojas-Luna said.

Children of iodine-deficient mothers may become retarded, deaf-mute or suffer from “cretinism” (mental and physical undevelopment). Children with low iodine counts, the nutrition professor said, may become mentally slow.

Vitamin A is needed to produce mucous in the membranes of different organs of the body. “We get the sniffles when we have allergens inside the body. We cough or sneeze it out to get the alien entity like dust out of our system. We are able to do that because of the mucous that traps allergens. Mucous is manufactured by our bodies with the help of Vitamin A,” Fojas Luna said.

Without the ability to expel allergens, says the professor, the processes inside the body are hampered. And this makes children sick.

Without Vitamin A, the eyes also dry out, which leads to eye injuries. “Dry eyes cannot expel dust and other objects that get inside,” she said. Chronic dryness of the eyes can eventually lead to blindness.

Vitamin A is also responsible for binding proteins in the retina of the eye which enables people to adjust to darkness. Vitamin A deficiency causes night blindness. “Vitamin A-deficient children become withdrawn at dusk because they cannot see very well in the dark. They reduce their physical activity when it gets dark,” Fojas Luna said.

Malnutrition is debilitating to schoolchildren. FNRI urges that health and nutrition programs and interventions be intensified. It warns, however, that programs on health and nutrition would go nowhere if the root cause of the problem is not addressed.

“There is the greater need for programs and projects that will raise the economic condition of the majority of the Filipino people as malnutrition is associated mainly with poverty. If all the young Filipinos are to attain their greatest potential physically and mentally, the government must not ignore the malnutrition of about one-fourth to one-third of the children,” FNRI said.
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 17, 2006 7:18 pm    Post subject: Effects of nutrition on learning Reply with quote

Public Library of Science
17 July 2006

Effects of nutrition on learning



Poor nutrition early in life can impair neural development, leading to lower IQ in humans and flawed song learning in birds. Recent evidence indicates that many organisms can offset some of the changes associated with early poor nutrition by modifying their physical development. For example, poorly nourished children can undergo a period of accelerated growth once their diet improves, ultimately appearing normal as an adult. But such compensatory measures may come at a price, with cognitive or other developmental disabilities emerging later in life.

In a new study published in the open-access journal PLoS Biology, Michael Fisher, Rudolph Nager, and Pat Monaghan explored the connection between early poor nutrition, compensatory growth, and learning ability in adulthood. To circumvent the confounding variables inherent in human studies and to control for genetic effects, the researchers compared the learning performance of zebra finch siblings reared on different quality diets after hatching. Only food quality, not quantity, was changed. The rate at which adult birds could learn a simple task, they found, depended on the rate of compensatory growth the birds showed following a period on lower-quality food early in life--not on the diet itself or on the degree of stunted growth.

For the full article:

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_.....071106.php
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PostPosted: Tue Sep 19, 2006 9:46 pm    Post subject: Preconception care crucial to improving maternal and infant Reply with quote

March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation

Preconception care crucial to improving maternal and infant health

WHITE PLAINS, N.Y., September 19, 2006 – Continued improvements in the infant and maternal mortality rates will depend on interventions before a woman becomes pregnant, according to officials from the March of Dimes, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other experts.

Since nearly half of all pregnancies are unintended, the preconception period – the time before a woman becomes pregnant – is crucial to reducing many of the risks of birth defects and premature birth. Every visit to the doctor for women of childbearing age should be considered an opportunity to discuss reproductive health, the experts wrote.

Nearly 85 percent of women receive early prenatal care, which has contributed to the improvements in maternal and infant health. But, continued progress in reducing the infant and maternal mortality rates and preventing premature birth and low birth weight babies has slowed in recent years; the focus must now shift to the preconception period.

"We can't wait for new medical breakthroughs. We must take what we know and use it now," said Dr. Jennifer L. Howse, president of the March of Dimes, one of the co-authors. "Even early prenatal care may be too late to make a difference in some cases. Some interventions work best – and others only work – if they begin before pregnancy."

"Preconception Care for Improving Perinatal Outcomes: The Time to Act," was published online today at http://springerlink.com/conten.....a&pi=4 as part of a supplement of the Maternal and Child Health Journal. It contains nearly three dozen research articles on preconception care outlining areas where women and doctors can focus to improve the chance of having a health baby.

Included in the supplement are ten recommendations designed to make preconception health care part of routine medical visits so that risk factors can be identified before pregnancy, assisting doctors in offering women additional services to reduce the risk of premature birth and birth defects.

The Journal's supplement includes articles about the use of medication during pregnancy, information about physician beliefs and opinions about preconception care and their practices, genetic risks, the use of multivitamins (including folic acid) to prevent birth defects, as well as the impact obesity, depression, and chronic diseases have on pregnancy. Nearly a third of the articles were co-authored by March of Dimes experts.
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 23, 2006 11:41 am    Post subject: Babies Motor Better with Breast Milk Reply with quote

ScienceNews, Week of Sept. 23, 2006; Vol. 170, No. 13

Babies Motor Better with Breast Milk
Janet Raloff

Physicians have been advocating for years that breast milk is the best food for infants. Not only does it have the nutrition that babies need, but it also provides some antibodies and growth factors that speed maturation of the infant gut, thereby fending off disease. Now, a team of scientists in Britain offers strong evidence of another benefit. Mother's milk boosts early neurological development.

For the full article:

http://www.sciencenews.org/art.....3/food.asp
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PostPosted: Fri Oct 06, 2006 7:30 pm    Post subject: Intelligence Linked to Breast-Feeding Reply with quote

Intelligence Linked to Breast-Feeding

By Tariq Panja
Associated Press
posted: 06 October 2006
02:13 pm ET

LONDON (AP) ─ Breast-fed children are more intelligent than their bottle-fed counterparts, but this has nothing to do with the content of the milk they receive, a study published in the British Medical Journal said.

For decades scientists have been looking for a correlation between feeding and intelligence, but the report says genetic and environmental factors affect a child's intellect.

Researchers, who analyzed data from more than 5,000 children and 3,000 mothers in the United States, found that mothers who breast-feed tend to be more intelligent, according to a study published Wednesday on the journal's Web site.

*************************************************************

The last sentence above should be read carefully - it says, mothers who breast-feed tend to be more intelligent.

Please read the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....eding.html
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PostPosted: Fri Oct 27, 2006 6:50 pm    Post subject: For crying out loud - pick up your baby Reply with quote

Date: 27 October 2006
Queensland University of Technology

For crying out loud - pick up your baby

Parents should listen to their instincts and pick up their newborn babies when they cry, Queensland University of Technology researcher Professor Karen Thorpe said.

A joint study with QUT and the Riverton Early Parenting Centre has found many parents of infants up to 12 weeks, were uncertain about how best to settle their crying baby and whether or not it was "right" to pick them up.

"A lot of parents are unsure if they should pick up their baby when their baby cries," Professor Thorpe from QUT's Faculty of Education said.

"The answer is: you should. Babies in the first 12 weeks of their life need highly responsive parents. They want and need a parent that is responsive to their cries."

Professor Thorpe said the study was initiated by concerns by clinical nurses from the Riverton centre that parents were choosing to ignore their crying newborn for fear it would "spoil" their baby to pick them up.

Riverton clinical nurse and co-researcher Claire Halle said parents felt picking up their crying baby would create "bad habits" which would impact negatively on their child's behaviour in the future.

"Parent's felt torn between what they thought and what they felt was the right thing to do, and this uncertainty seemed to heighten their stress levels," Ms Halle said.

The study found about 20 per cent of first time parents and 30 per cent of experienced parents admitted they were uncertain about picking up their crying baby. It also revealed that almost 25 per cent of first time parents and just over 10 per cent of experienced parents believed picking up a crying baby would spoil them.

"One parent said 'I feel guilty for not picking him up when he cries'," Ms Halle said. "Another said 'frequent and sudden changes in baby's behaviour make it hard to judge...too much attention may spoil them'."

But Professor Thorpe said in the first three month's of a baby's life, having responsive parents was very important to the child's emotional and neurological development.

She said the study highlighted there was a problem because parents were getting mixed messages about how best to settle their newborn baby.

"We need to ensure nurses, educators and health professionals are providing parents with consistent and appropriate guidelines for caring for their baby," Professor Thorpe said.

"It is also important for parents to have the confidence to trust their instincts when it comes to caring for their baby."

The study, funded by the Royal Children's Hospital Foundation, is a joint collaboration between Dr Toni Dowd from QUT's School of Nursing, Professor Karen Thorpe and the Settling Team at the Riverton Early Parenting Centre.

The study was a unique experience for clinical nurses to work as co-researchers and demonstrated the value of engaging clinical staff, academics and parents in research.
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 09, 2006 1:59 pm    Post subject: Breast-feeding overcomes a genetic tendency toward ear infec Reply with quote

University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
8 December 2006

Breast-feeding overcomes a genetic tendency toward ear infections, scientists discover

GALVESTON, Texas— Breast-feeding protects children otherwise made susceptible to ear infections by abnormalities in specific human genes, researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have discovered.

About 19 percent of children are prone to chronic and recurrent ear infections (known to physicians as "otitis media"). These infections can interfere with language development and lead to learning difficulties. Scientists have long known that genetics plays a role in this vulnerability, but very few investigations have been done to pinpoint the specific genes involved. Their complex relationship with specific infectious agents and environmental factors such as exposure to cigarette smoke and breast-feeding also has remained largely a mystery.

The UTMB study, published in the December issue of the journal Pediatrics, examined genetic samples taken from 505 children in Texas and Kentucky, about 60 percent of whom were classified as "otitis media susceptible" because they had suffered an ear infection before the age of 6 months; had undergone three or more episodes of acute otitis media within a six-month period; had four or more episodes within a 12-month period; or had six or more episodes by age 6. Children who had required drainage tubes to assuage recurrent or persistent ear infections were also placed in the "susceptible" category.

"We know that the tendency to get this infection runs in families, and so we decided to look for small variations — what we call ‘single-nucleotide polymorphisms,' or SNPs — in three important genes that produce inflammatory signaling molecules for the immune system," said lead author Janak A. Patel, a professor in the infectious disease division of UTMB's Department of Pediatrics. "Two of them stood out on their own as signals of increased risk."

The two identified genes generate the immune proteins known as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). SNPs in each individual gene were enough, the researchers found, to create increased risk for childhood ear infections, and simultaneous SNPs in both genes created even more risk. The researchers believe that the particular variations detected cause greater production of inflammatory signaling molecules and reduce immune system effectiveness. But the UTMB scientists found that the effect could be counteracted with a practice long known to increase immune resistance: breast-feeding.

"This is a major finding, that breast-feeding neutralized the effect even in kids who had all the genetic polymorphisms," Patel said. "Not only that, they were protected from recurrent infections even later in childhood, long after they stopped breast-feeding."

By contrast, the group found that another environmental factor — exposure to cigarette smoke — increased vulnerability to otitis media in children with the TNF-alpha gene variation. Cigarette smoke exposure alone, however, was not enough to increase risk for ear infections.


###
Patel's co-authors on the paper include UTMB research associate Sangeeta Nair, Assistant Professor Krystal Revai, biostatistician James Grady, Associate Professor Kokab Saeed and Professors Reuben Matalon and Tasnee Chonmaitree, as well as Stan Block of Kentucky Pediatric Research, Inc. The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
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PostPosted: Tue Feb 20, 2007 8:18 am    Post subject: Being Breast-Fed May Be Key to Success Reply with quote

Being Breast-Fed May Be Key to Success

By Robert Preidt
HealthDay Reporter
posted: 19 February 2007
10:20 pm ET

(HealthDay News) -- People who were breast-fed as babies are more likely to climb the social ladder in adulthood, compared to those who were bottle-fed, British research finds.

Researchers at the University of Bristol analyzed data on more than 1,400 people from 16 rural and urban areas in England and Scotland who were born from 1937 to 1939. Among these people, the likelihood of being breast-fed was not dependent on household income, spending on food, birth order, number of siblings, or social class in childhood.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/healthday/601878.html
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PostPosted: Tue Mar 06, 2007 7:11 am    Post subject: Research identifies causes contributing to poor development Reply with quote

March 5, 2007
Purdue University

Research identifies causes contributing to poor development of over 200 million children worldwide

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. - Inadequate intellectual stimulation and poor nutrition, especially iodine and iron deficiencies, are likely to blame for hindering more than 200 million children in developing countries from meeting their full potential, says a Purdue University researcher."These problems are robbing children under age 5 of full development, contributing to a cycle of low educational attainment and poverty later in life," said Theodore Wachs, a professor of psychological sciences at Purdue and a lead researcher on the project. "We're not talking about genetics here. These are all preventable risks, which makes the situation that much more urgent." Theodore Wachs
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"Child Development: Risk Factors for Adverse Outcomes in Developing Countries," is the second in a three-part series from Wachs and colleagues across the globe aimed at identifying the scope, causes and current prevention efforts regarding the loss of developmental potential among children in countries from Brazil to Vietnam. The series appeared in successive January editions of The Lancet.

The researchers drew from data in studies performed from 1985 to February 2006 by searching eight databases using keywords such as "developing countries," "cognitive development" and "educational attainment." They also worked with documents published by the World Bank, UNICEF and UNESCO's International Bureau of Education.

UNICEF provided funding for a working group meeting for all of the authors with assistance from the Bernard van Leer Foundation.

Of the major concerns identified, growth stunting could be the most rampant, affecting as many as 40 percent to 50 percent of children under 5 in some developing countries. Stunting, a measure of chronic undernutrition, is often compounded by infectious diseases.

Studies consistently show associations between stunting and later cognitive deficits, with one study in Jamaica indicating that stunted children score lower on IQ tests through age 18.

"Stunted or undernourished children often show more apathy, lower levels of play and more insecure attachment issues than their healthy peers," said Wachs, a member of the International Child Development Steering Group that headed up the work. "In the long-term, we found conduct problems coupled with poor attention and social relationships."

The paper also details the relatively low levels of intellectual stimulation many children in developing countries receive. Researchers found only between 10 percent and 41 percent of parents provide cognitively stimulating materials, such as toys or puzzles, to their children. Even fewer - between 11 percent and 33 percent of parents - actively involved their children in intellectually stimulating activities.

"Proper intellectual stimulation increases both cognitive and social-emotional competencies not only in the short term, but also throughout a child's life," Wachs said.

Iodine deficiency, which was shown to affect about 35 percent of children in developing countries, is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. An analysis of 12,291 children younger than 16 who grew up in iodine-deficient areas of China were found to have IQs about 12.5 points lower on average than children in other areas.

Nineteen of 21 studies comparing iron-deficient infants with healthy infants found poorer mental, motor, social-emotional and neurophysiologic functioning among those infants with low iron levels.

"We also found that anemic children remained behind their peers even after iron supplementation," Wachs said. "Generally speaking, the sooner children receive supplements, the more good it will do in the long term. It's a strong case for prevention. Our best hope may be to try to reach these children before their iron deficiency becomes severe."

In addition to the problems outlined, the research also identified other less well-studied factors that adversely affect child development enough to warrant intervention, including malaria, maternal depression, exposure to violence, low infant birth weight, and exposure to toxic substances such as arsenic and lead.

"While we looked at these factors individually, it is important to note that many children are simultaneously exposed to more than one of the risk factors identified," Wachs said. "To truly be effective, intervention programs must take account of this."

Wachs said members of the International Child Development Steering Group plan to meet with international relief agencies in October to discuss how the findings from the Lancet series can be used to tailor existing intervention programs or create new ones that better address the causes of developmental deficiencies in children.

"We don't want this to be just another report that sits on a shelf," Wachs said. "To be more than that, we have to make specific recommendations about what is needed and what works best."


Writer: Tanya Brown, (765) 494-2079, tanyabrown@purdue.edu


Source: Theodore Wachs, (765) 494-6992, wachs@psych.purdue.edu


Purdue News Service: (765) 494-2096; purduenews@purdue.edu


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ABSTRACT
Child Development: Risk Factors for Adverse Outcomes in Developing Countries


Prof Susan P Walker PhD, Prof Theodore D Wachs PhD, Julie Meeks Gardner PhD, Prof Betsy Lozoff MD, Prof Gail A Wasserman PhD, Prof Ernesto Pollitt PhD, Julie A Carter PhD and the International Child Development Steering Group


Poverty and associated health, nutrition, and social factors prevent at least 200 million children in developing countries from attaining their developmental potential. We review the evidence linking compromised development with modifiable biological and psychosocial risks encountered by children from birth to 5 years of age. We identify four key risk factors where the need for intervention is urgent: stunting, inadequate cognitive stimulation, iodine deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. The evidence is also sufficient to warrant interventions for malaria, intrauterine growth restriction, maternal depression, exposure to violence and exposure to heavy metals. We discuss the research needed to clarify the effect of other potential risk factors on child development. The prevalence of the risk factors and their effect on development and human potential are substantial. Furthermore, risks often occur together or cumulatively, with concomitant increased adverse effects on the development of the world's poorest children.



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ABSTRACT
Developmental Potential in the First 5 Years for Children in Developing Countries


Prof Sally Grantham-McGregor FRCP, Yin Bun Cheung PhD, Santiago Cueto PhD, Prof Paul Glewwe PhD, Prof Linda Richter PhD, Barbara Strupp PhD and the International Child Development Steering Group


Many children younger than 5 years in developing countries are exposed to multiple risks, including poverty, malnutrition, poor health and unstimulating home environments, which detrimentally affect their cognitive, motor and social-emotional development. There are few national statistics on the development of young children in developing countries. We therefore identified two factors with available worldwide data ? the prevalence of early childhood stunting and the number of people living in absolute poverty ? to use as indicators of poor development. We show that both indicators are closely associated with poor cognitive and educational performance in children and use them to estimate that over 200 million children under 5 years are not fulfilling their developmental potential. Most of these children live in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. These disadvantaged children are likely to do poorly in school and subsequently have low incomes, high fertility and provide poor care for their children, thus contributing to the intergenerational transmission of poverty.



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ABSTRACT
Strategies to Avoid the Loss of Developmental Potential in more than 200 Million Children in the Developing World


Prof Patrice L Engle PhDa, Prof Maureen M Black PhDb, Prof Jere R Behrman PhD, Meena Cabral de Mello DES psy clind, Prof Paul J Gertler PhDf, Lydia Kapiriri PhDg, Prof Reynaldo Martorell PhDh, Mary Eming Young DrPHe and the International Child Development Steering Group

This paper is the third in the Child Development Series. The first paper showed that more than 200 million children under 5 years of age in developing countries do not reach their developmental potential. The second paper identified four well-documented risks: stunting, iodine deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and inadequate cognitive stimulation, plus four potential risks based on epidemiological evidence: maternal depression, violence exposure, environmental contamination and malaria. This paper assesses strategies to promote child development and to prevent or ameliorate the loss of developmental potential. The most effective early child development programmes provide direct learning experiences to children and families, are targeted toward younger and disadvantaged children, are of longer duration, high quality, and high intensity, and are integrated with family support, health, nutrition, or educational systems and services. Despite convincing evidence, programme coverage is low. To achieve the Millennium Development Goals of reducing poverty and ensuring primary school completion for both girls and boys, governments and civil society should consider expanding high quality, cost-effective early child development programmes.
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PostPosted: Mon Apr 23, 2007 10:03 am    Post subject: Lean for life Reply with quote

Society of Chemical Industry
23 April 2007

Lean for life

Baby formula that fights fat
Infant formula and other baby foods that provide permanent protection from obesity and diabetes into adulthood could be on shop shelves soon, reports Lisa Melton in Chemistry & Industry, the magazine of the SCI.

The foods, under development at the Clore Laboratory at the University of Buckingham, will be supplemented with leptin, the hunger hormone. Those who take the foods early in life should remain permanently slim. 'Like those people who are lean by nature even though they overeat ? like we all do – they will tend to be inefficient in terms of using energy,' says Mike Cawthorne, who heads the Metabolic Research group at Clore.

Cawthorne's group has already demonstrated that supplementing infant rats' diets with leptin means that they never get fat or develop diabetes (AM J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00676.2006). Even animals fed a high-fat diet remained slim.

Leptin, the fat hormone that turns off hunger in the brain, is produced in the body throughout life. Its discovery was heralded as a major breakthrough, but research in adults proved disappointing because individuals soon seemed to resist its hunger-quenching effect.

But Cawthorne says this time things are different. Providing leptin earlier enough effectively hard-wires the body's energy balance. In fact, whether one is fat or thin may be determined before birth. Feeding the hormone to pregnant rats has been found to have a lifelong impact on their offspring's predisposition to obesity. Animals born of leptin-treated mothers remain lean even when fed a fat-laden diet, while those from untreated dams gained weight and developed diabetes.

The difference boils down to energy expenditure. The offspring of leptin-treated mothers burn up more energy. 'The infants are permanently inefficient in terms of using energy,' says Cawthorne.

Leptin-based products may also find their way into the pet obesity market.

Edinburgh researcher Jonathan Seckl says. 'We need to know whether leptin is acting pre- and post-natally, figure out how it works, and dissect the possible side-effects before this becomes a potential approach for humans. Nonetheless, this is good science,' he says.
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 14, 2007 2:28 pm    Post subject: Mother's milk a gift that keeps on giving Reply with quote

University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
13 September 2007

Mother's milk a gift that keeps on giving

In breastfeeding, US trails most other industrialized nations
GALVESTON, Texas — Extensive medical research shows that mothers’ milk satisfies babies’ nutritional needs far better than any manufactured infant formula. It also protects babies against many common infectious diseases and certain inflammatory diseases, and probably helps lower the risk of a child later developing diabetes, lymphoma and some types of leukemia.

These conclusions appear in a major new review of the medical literature published this month entitled “Benefits and Risks of Breastfeeding.”

The article, published in the current issue of Advances in Pediatrics (and available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/s.....l/00653101 ), surveys both risks and benefits associated with breastfeeding. Many mothers and medical professionals may not understand that a great number of protective factors unique to human milk are provided by breastfeeding and how much breastfeeding’s benefits outweigh its rare but often well-publicized risks, said Dr. Armond Goldman, senior author of the paper and professor emeritus of pediatrics at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.

In the United States, this misunderstanding of benefits versus risks — in addition to social factors such as less generous maternity leave policies and poor preventive health care for much of the population — has helped keep the rates of initiation and continuation of breastfeeding in the U.S. lower than those in most developed countries, Goldman said.

Coincidentally, the paper appeared online just before the Washington Post reported on Aug. 31 that lobbyists for the infant formula industry had succeeded in getting the federal Department of Health and Human Services to tone down a government-sponsored “attention-grabbing advertising campaign” in 2004 designed to convince mothers that their babies faced real health risks if they did not breastfeed.

A congressional investigation is examining the allegations in the Post report, which emphasized the low rate of breastfeeding in the U.S. compared with that of other industrialized nations.

In the Advances in Pediatrics paper, said Goldman, “we tried to clarify the benefits and risks, by putting together a definitive review of both sides of the issue.” He added: “Substantially more physicians and members of the public should recognize that the overall benefits of breastfeeding are much greater and the overall risks are much less than are benefits and risks from feedings using commercial infant formulas.” Goldman continued, “If you understand the potential risks, most can be identified during pregnancy or shortly after birth and can be prevented or minimized.”

UTMB professor of pediatrics David K. Rassin, a co-author of the paper (with Baylor College of Medicine assistant professor of pediatrics Judy M. Hopkinson), said, “Although many of us assume that everyone knows breastfeeding is best for infants and the American Academy of Pediatrics has come out with really strong recommendations in favor of it, the prevalence of breastfeeding in the United States is only about 65 percent right now.” Rassin elaborated: “Historically, we had a rapid increase from about 25 percent in the Sixties up to the area of 60 percent in the late Eighties, and it’s only very gradually crept up since then.”

“Within the United States, where we’ve got clean water and don’t have a lot of the diseases associated with formula feeding in Third World countries, I think we still have this concept that there really isn’t any difference between breastfeeding and formula feeding,” Rassin said. “One of the points we tried to make in this article is that even in this country there are definitely some health risks associated with formula feeding — they just tend to involve diseases that take a long time to emerge but may reflect lack of breastfeeding.”

In countries where clean water is unavailable to much of the population, statistics show that breastfeeding significantly reduces infant mortality. However, in some areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, the possibility of HIV transmission through breast milk makes the risk-benefit calculation more difficult, the paper’s authors note.

“Certainly in the U.S. at the moment, it would be recommended that an HIV-infected mom not breastfeed,” Rassin said. “But if you look at a poor sub-Saharan African nation and try to balance off the high risks of a child dying because of a severe gastrointestinal infection from dirty water in formula versus the potential for getting HIV infection from the mom, it’s a tough call. Probably, you would tend to say breastfeeding would be better in that circumstance than not breastfeeding.”

Other risks identified by the authors include an insufficient transfer of breast milk, leading to dehydration and growth failure in the infant; certain vitamin deficiencies such as Vitamin D in human milk; the possibility that allergens consumed by the mother and passed to the nursing infant could cause adverse reactions; the transmission of a serious infection during breastfeeding; the exposure of an infant to certain toxic medications that are excreted in human milk; and rare genetic defects in the infant that prevent the digestion and metabolism of the milk constituents lactose, galactose and phenylalanine.

Except for genetic disorders and some infectious diseases, the authors say, none of these risks absolutely precludes breastfeeding if preventive measures are taken. In particular, Rassin said, making sure new mothers have learned proper breastfeeding technique is critical to ensuring babies get enough breast milk to keep them hydrated and growing. “The way we manage newborns now, getting them out of the hospital in 24 or 48 hours, that’s not enough time to really get a mom established on breastfeeding, and moms need the appropriate support to begin the behavior,” Rassin said. “It is a natural behavior, but it’s not always an easy behavior to get established — in fact, it can be very difficult during the first couple of weeks.”

Goldman also emphasized the need for better physician education on breastfeeding. “It’s important that physicians and others in the health care profession understand the benefits and risks of breastfeeding, recognize problems when they occur and help mothers with them,” Goldman said. “Part of the difficulty is that there is insufficient time in most medical schools and most residency training programs in pediatrics, obstetrics or family medicine to more fully educate medical trainees about this important public health issue.”
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PostPosted: Mon Nov 05, 2007 5:39 pm    Post subject: Breastfeeding boost IQ in infants with 'helpful' genetic var Reply with quote

Yale University
5 November 2007

Breastfeeding boost IQ in infants with 'helpful' genetic variant

New Haven, Conn.—Breastfeeding boosts infants’ IQs, but only if the babies have a genetic variant that enhances their metabolism of breast milk, a Yale researcher and collaborators report today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“It is this genetic variant in FADS2, a gene involved in the control of fatty acid pathways, that may help the children make better use of the breast milk and promote the brain development that is associated with a higher IQ score,” said Julia Kim-Cohen, assistant professor of psychology and a member of the research team.

“Children who do not carry the ‘helpful’ genetic variant have normal average IQ scores,” Kim-Cohen said. “Being breastfed for them is not associated with an IQ advantage.”

The study included researchers from King’s College, London, Duke University, and the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand.

The intelligence quotient (IQ) has long been at the heart of debates about nature versus nurture. Twin studies document both strong genetic influences and nongenetic environmental influences on IQ, particularly for young children.

This study looked at how long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAS), which are present in human milk but not in cow’s milk or most infant formulas, are metabolized. LC-PUFAS in breast milk, the authors said, is believed to enhance cognitive development because the fatty acids are required for efficient neurotransmission and are involved in neuronal growth and regeneration.

The study included 1,037 children in New Zealand and 1,116 families with same sex twins in England and Wales. Those who were breastfed and had the genetic variant FADS2 had IQs that were 5.6 to 6.3 points higher than children who were breastfed but did not have the variant.

“The finding has many implications, including for the public understanding of genetics,” the authors said. “To date, research on gene-environment interactions has been dominated by the search for genetic variants that increase disease susceptibility to environmental pathogens. However, genes are not only implicated in disease. Here we have shown that a genetic variant may also enhance a favorable response to a health promoting exposure present throughout human ancestry.”


###
PNAS Early Edition: doi/10.1073/pnas.0704292104
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PostPosted: Tue Jan 15, 2008 3:29 pm    Post subject: Researchers find association between food insecurity and dev Reply with quote

Boston University
15 January 2008

Researchers find association between food insecurity and developmental risk in children
Boston, MA—Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) and Boston Medical Center (BMC), in collaboration with researchers from Arkansas, Maryland, Minnesota and Pennsylvania, have found that children living in households with food insecurity , are more likely to be at developmental risk during their first three years of life, compared to similar households that are not food insecure. This study appears in the January 2008 issue of the journal Pediatrics.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that 16.7 percent of all U.S. households with children less than six years of age had food insecurity in 2005, reporting limited or uncertain availability of enough food for an active healthy life. In children aged less than three years, food insecurity has been associated with poor infant health, and the likelihood of hospitalization.

The Children’s Sentinel Nutritional Assessment Program (C-SNAP) interviewed caregivers from low-income households with children aged four to 36 months at five pediatric clinic/emergency department sites in Boston, Little Rock, Baltimore, Minneapolis and Philadelphia. The target child from each household was weighed and weight-for-age score was calculated.

In the sample of 2,010 families, the researchers found 21 percent reported food insecurity. The results of the analyses revealed that children from food-insecure households, compared with those from food-secure households, were two thirds more likely to experience developmental risks. Household food insecurity, (with or without the report of family hunger), even in the presence of appropriate weight-for age, is an important risk factor for the health, development and behavior of children less than three years of age.

According to the researchers the clinical and public policy implications of this study are striking. “Providing nutritional and developmental interventions to young children and their families is a proactive step that might decrease the need for later, more extensive interventions for developmentally or behaviorally impaired children of school age,” said lead author Ruth Rose-Jacobs, ScD, an assistant professor of pediatrics at BUSM and a research scientist at BMC.

“Interventions for food insecurity and developmental risk are available and overall have been successful. Linking families to the Food Stamp Program and/or the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children is an important intervention that should be recommended if indicated by risk surveillance or developmental screening,” she adds.
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PostPosted: Mon Aug 11, 2008 1:08 pm    Post subject: New evidence on benefits of breast feeding Reply with quote

New evidence on benefits of breast feeding
11 August 2008
Journal of Proteome Research

Researchers in Switzerland and Australia are reporting identification of proteins in human breast-milk — not present in cow's milk — that may fight disease by helping remove bacteria, viruses and other dangerous pathogen's from an infant's gastrointestinal tract. Their study is scheduled for the September 5 issue of ACS' Journal of Proteome Research, a monthly publication.

Niclas Karlsson and colleagues point out that researchers have known for years that breast milk appears to provide a variety of health benefits, including lower rates of diarrhea, rashes, allergies, and other medical problems in comparison to babies fed with cow's milk. However, the biological reasons behind this association remain unclear.

To find out, the scientists collected human and cow's milk samples and analyzed their content of milk fat. They found that fat particles in human milk are coated with particular variants of two sugar-based proteins, called MUC-1 and MUC-4. Previous studies by others have shown that these proteins can block certain receptors in the GI tract that are the main attachment sites for E. coli, Helicobacter pylori and other disease-causing microbes, thereby preventing infection. By contrast, since cow's milk lacks these protein variants, it may not offer the same disease protection, the researchers say.

ARTICLE #3 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
"Glycoproteomics of Milk: Differences in Sugar Epitopes on Human and Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membranes"

DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ARTICLE
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr700793k
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