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(Health) Milk Products: Yogurt Culture Evolves

 
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 12, 2006 6:39 am    Post subject: (Health) Milk Products: Yogurt Culture Evolves Reply with quote






Yogurt Culture Evolves

By Sara Goudarzi
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 09 June 2006
10:26 am ET



As our yogurt culture evolves, so do the bacteria involved in making it, ridding themselves of extra genes and in the meantime giving scientists a glimpse of the evolutionary process.

Scientists have sequenced the genome of Lactobacillus Bulgaricus, a group of bacteria involved in making yogurt.

Originally associated with plants, this bacteria is specializing to make itself more comfortable in its current environment: fermented milk.

Yogurt can be traced back to 3,200 years before Christ. Looking at the genome, scientists have found traces of adaptation in a strain called L. Bulgaricus over time.

"The interpretation of what we see is that this bacterium has eliminated, and still is in the process of eliminating, genes that it doesn’t need any longer," such as those involved in the metabolism of sugars of plant origin," said study leader Maarten van de Guchte of Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique in France.

L. Bulgaricus is believed to have been a class of bacteria that lived among plants but somehow found its way into dairy.

"We think they may have lived on the surface of plants (leaves), maybe grass," van de Guchte said. "Milk may have become spontaneously [and] unintentionally infected through contact with the plants, or bacteria may have been transferred via the udder of domestic milk-producing animals."

The origin of yogurt goes back to ancient Middle Eastern cultures that used it to preserve milk. The live bacteria in yogurt are thought to have many health benefits, such as prevention of certain infections, calming of lactose intolerance, and lessening diarrhea.

"As the bacterium adapts to this environment, throwing out the 'ballast' of genes it doesn’t need any longer, it may gain in performance (growth rate)," van de Guchte told LiveScience. "This would mean that yogurt fermentation using these “modern” bacteria is probably [faster] than it would have been initially."

The study was detailed in a recent issue of the journal for the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


*************************************************************

Questions to explore further this topic:

What is milk?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk

The chemistry and physics of milk

http://www.foodsci.uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/chem.html

The story of milk

http://www.moomilk.com/tour.htm
http://www.pauls.com.au/inform.....ection/22/

What are the benefits of milk?

http://www.whymilk.com/facts_gotmilk.htm
http://www.nichd.nih.gov/milk/prob/milk_cal.cfm
http://www.nichd.nih.gov/milk/kids/kidsteens.cfm
http://www.whymilk.com/facts_fuel.htm
http://eatwell.gov.uk/healthyd.....kanddairy/

What can you do if you cannot drink milk?

http://www.nichd.nih.gov/milk/can/prob.cfm

The biology of milk

http://classes.aces.uiuc.edu/A.....ing_1.html

Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk

http://aappolicy.aappublicatio.....100/6/1035

Milk secretion in mammals

http://mammary.nih.gov/reviews.....eville001/

Reviews on the mammary gland

http://mammary.nih.gov/reviews/index.html

The milk body tour

http://www.whymilk.com/facts_milkbody.htm

What is pasteurized milk?

http://www.fda.gov/fdac/featur....._milk.html
http://www.foodsci.uoguelph.ca.....ation.html
http://www.idfa.org/facts/milk/pasteur.cfm
http://www.fcs.msue.msu.edu/ff.....afety2.pdf

What are the health risks of drinking raw (unpasteurized) milk?

http://agbiopubs.sdstate.edu/a.....x14047.pdf
http://www.safefood.qld.gov.au.....141003.pdf

What foods are included in the milk, yogurt, and cheese (milk) group?

http://www.mypyramid.gov/pyramid/milk.html

What is lactose intolerance?

http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov.....erance_ez/
http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov.....tolerance/
http://www.lactose.co.uk/intolerance/index.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactose_intolerance

What is milk allergy?

http://www.lactose.co.uk/milkallergy/index.html
http://kidshealth.org/parent/m.....lergy.html

What is yogurt?

http://www.foodsci.uoguelph.ca.....ogurt.html
http://www.wisdairy.com/OtherD.....fault.aspx
http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Fank.....RT2000.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yogurt

What is cheese?

http://www.dairyfarmingtoday.o.....tSheet.pdf

What is butter?

http://www.wisdairy.com/OtherD.....fault.aspx

What is ice cream?

http://www.wisdairy.com/OtherD.....fault.aspx

What is condensed milk?

http://www.milk.com/wall-o-sha....._Milk.html

Goat's milk

http://www.medicinalfoodnews.c.....atmilk.htm

What is Lactobacillus?

http://biology.kenyon.edu/Micr.....cillus.htm

Lactobacillus Acidophilus
http://www.umm.edu/altmed/Cons.....luscs.html

Lactobacillus Bulgaricus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L.....bulgaricus

Lactobacillus Casei
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactobacillus_casei
http://genome.jgi-psf.org/draf......home.html

Lactobacillus Rhamnosus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L....._rhamnosus

Lactobacillus Bifidus
http://pubmedcentral.com/artic.....tid=413809

GAMES

http://www.whymilk.com/facts_gotsmarts.htm
http://www.got-milk.com/fun/index.html


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 4:49 pm; edited 2 times in total
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PostPosted: Thu Aug 03, 2006 10:37 am    Post subject: Compound in dairy products targets diabetes Reply with quote

Penn State
3 August 2006

Compound in dairy products targets diabetes

Fatty acids commonly found in dairy products have successfully treated diabetes in mice, according to a researcher at Penn State. The compounds, known as conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), have also shown promising results in human trials, signaling a new way of potentially treating the disease without synthetic drugs.

"The compounds are predominantly found in dairy products such as milk, cheese and meat, and are formed by bacteria in ruminants that take linoleic acids – fatty acids from plants – and convert them into conjugated linoleic acids, or CLA," says Jack Vanden Heuvel, professor of molecular toxicology in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences and co-director of Penn State's Center of Excellence in Nutrigenomics.

Researchers first became interested in CLA when it was shown to inhibit a variety of cancers such as breast, skin and colon in mice, and further research showed effects on circulating cholesterol and inflammation. These effects are the same as the newest generation of synthetic drugs used to treat diabetes in humans.

These synthetic drugs act by triggering a set of nuclear receptors called PPAR. In addition to being targets for a variety of clinically effective drugs, PPARs belong to a large family of proteins, and their biological purpose is to sense fatty acids and fatty acid metabolites within the cell, says Vanden Heuvel.

When the synthetic drugs interact with these protein receptors, it turns the receptor "on," making it an active form of the protein, which then interacts with DNA and regulates gene expression. This increases the enzymes that process fatty acids and also increases the tissues' sensitivity to insulin.

"We wondered if CLA was using the same mechanism, in which case it could be used as an anti-diabetes drug," Vanden Heuvel says.

To test the idea, he used CLA on mice prone to adult onset (Type-2) diabetes. Results indicated that the mice had an improvement in insulin action, and a decrease in circulating glucose. Also, the mechanism was indeed similar to that of the drugs.

"Anti-diabetes drugs act the same way. They mimic the natural activators of the receptors by getting into the cell and interacting with the PPARs to regulate glucose and fat metabolism," says Vanden Heuvel.

Early human trials indicate that when administered for longer than 8 weeks, CLA improves the body's misregulation of insulin and lowers the level of glucose in the blood in patients with adult onset, or Type-2 diabetes, the most common form of this disease.

However, Vanden Heuvel cautions that while having a diet that is high in dairy and meat products, and thereby CLA, might have a health benefit, one must also be aware of other lipids present in these products, such as trans fatty acids. Instead, he suggests that in addition to a well-balanced diet, it is advantageous to incorporate CLA as a dietary supplement, or to seek out new products that enrich foods such as butter, margarine and ice cream with CLA.

"Adult-onset diabetes is fast becoming an epidemic and is largely associated with poor diet and nutrition and other lifestyle issues," Vanden Heuvel says. The reason for the increase in diabetes may have to do with the ratio of so-called "good" and "bad" fats, with the average American diet containing too much of the "bad" fats. CLA, whose effect is very similar to fish oil, a source of "good" fat, could prove beneficial against Type-2 diabetes.

"And compared to the synthetic drugs used to treated this disease, CLA does not cause weight gain and may in fact decrease overall body fat," says Vanden Heuvel, who has been granted a patent on the new method of treating diabetes with CLA.


###
Other researchers on the patent include Martha Belury, Ohio State University, and Louise Peck, University of Washington, for the work initially conducted at Purdue University.

The Penn State Center of Excellence in Nutrigenomics is at http://nutrigenomics.psu.edu/
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PostPosted: Mon Nov 13, 2006 10:51 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Squeezing more shelf life out of milk
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
13 November 2006

Putting the squeeze on milk may be a long-sought solution to the search for improved ways of killing harmful bacteria in milk and increasing its shelf life without introducing off-flavors into the beverage, researchers report.

Michael C. Qian and colleagues at Oregon State University point out that ultrahigh-temperature pasteurization (UHT) does produce milk that stays fresh at room temperature for six months. They add, however, that UHT leaves a "cooked" flavor in milk that has limited the popularity of UHT milk in the United States.

In experiments scheduled for publication in the Nov. 29 issue of the ACS biweekly Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, they describe how a new food processing technology affects the taste of milk. Called high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP), it involves putting foods under pressures that crush and kill bacteria while leaving food with a fresh, uncooked taste.

"Milk processed at a pressure of about 85,000 pounds per square inch for five minutes, and lower temperatures than used in commercial pasteurization, causes minimal production of chemical compounds responsible for the cooked flavor. HPP gives milk a shelf life at refrigerated temperature of at least 45 days," they note. ARTICLE #1 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
"Effect of High-Pressure-Moderate-Temperature Processing on the Volatile Profile of Milk"

DOWNLOAD PDF
http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....61497k.pdf
DOWNLOAD HTML
http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....1497k.html
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PostPosted: Wed Apr 25, 2007 5:43 pm    Post subject: National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine report c Reply with quote

National Dairy Council

National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine report calls for more dairy foods at school

Recommendation reinforces positive role of dairy in child nutrition
Rosemont, Ill. – April 25, 2007 – Today, the National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine released a report recommending nutrition standards be established for "competitive" foods in the school environment, such as a la carte cafeteria items, vending machines and school stores. The National Dairy Council (NDC) applauds the overall recommendations outlined in the report, which promote the consumption of nonfat and low-fat dairy products, fruits, vegetables and whole grains and limits the amount of saturated fat, salt, added sugars, and total calories. The report includes a specific recommendation for schools to increase the availability of low-fat and nonfat white and flavored milk and yogurt, with modest amounts of added sugars, for all grade levels, throughout the day.

"We're pleased that the report recognizes the important role dairy foods play in contributing valuable nutrients to the diet of children and adolescents," said Ann Marie Krautheim, MA, RD, senior vice president of nutrition affairs at the NDC. "Child health is a dairy industry priority and we're committed to continuing to develop healthy and great-tasting dairy foods that can be enjoyed at school, at home and on-the-go." With child obesity rates on the rise, the new guidelines aim to improve children and adolescent's diets and health.

"This report is a step in the right direction for helping children and adolescents develop lifelong healthy eating habits," said Keith Ayoob, EdD, RD, FADA Associate Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine. "The report wants to encourage kids to eat more fruits, vegetables, whole grains and especially dairy foods, which give kids three of the five "nutrients of concern" identified by the Dietary Guidelines, specifically, calcium, potassium and magnesium. Kids spend more than half their day in school so it's important that school food and beverage offerings provide the nutrients they need."

Milk and milk products provide more than 70 percent of the calcium consumed by Americans. The Dietary Guidelines recommend children ages 9 and older consume three servings of low-fat or fat-free and milk or milk products each day. And, children ages 2-8 can consume three child-size servings of milk to add up to a total of 2 cups, or equivalent, of dairy foods per day.

Together milk, cheese and yogurt contain nine essential nutrients, and dairy is the number-one source of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium in the diets of American children and adolescents. Adequate calcium intake during childhood and adolescence, by consuming the recommended three servings of dairy a day, may help to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and fractures later in life. And, research shows that children who consume recommended amounts of dairy foods have better overall nutrient intakes. However, half of children ages 4-8 and ninety percent of preteen girls and 70 percent of preteen boys (ages 9-13) do not meet current calcium recommendations. Nearly nine out of 10 teenage girls and almost seven out of 10 teenage boys (ages 14-1Cool don't meet calcium recommendations.


###
NDC and leading health professional organizations – as part of the 3-A-Day of Dairy program – work to educate families on the benefits eating a healthy diet. For more information on dairy foods and school nutrition and the 3-A-Day health professional partners, visit http://www.3aday.org.

To view the report in full, visit http://www.iom.edu.
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PostPosted: Thu May 10, 2007 1:14 pm    Post subject: Drinking farm milk reduces childhood asthma and allergies bu Reply with quote

Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
10 May 2007

Drinking farm milk reduces childhood asthma and allergies but raw consumption remains unsafe

Researchers study 15,000 children in five countries
Drinking farm milk can protect children against asthma and hayfever, according to a study of nearly 15,000 children published in the May issue of Clinical and Experimental Allergy.

But consuming farm milk that hasn’t been boiled poses serious health risks and further research is needed to develop a safe product that still provides good protection against these common childhood diseases.

Researchers from Europe and the USA studied 14,893 children aged between five and 13 in Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland.

The children were drawn from farm children, rural and suburban communities and Rudolph Steiner schools, which primarily cater for families with anthroposcopic lifestyles, who restrict their use of antibiotics, vaccinations, fever-reducing drugs and often follow a biodynamic diet.

Parents were asked to complete detailed questionnaires about their child’s consumption of milk, butter, yoghurt, eggs and fruit and vegetables and whether they were farm-produced or shop-bought.

They also answered questions about their child’s height and weight, whether they were breastfed and any allergies or asthma problems affecting the child or their family.

Allergy- related blood tests were also carried out on just under 4,000 children from across the five countries and the questionnaire results were validated with random telephone interviews with 493 respondents

The researchers discovered that children who drank farm milk were much less likely to suffer from hayfever and asthma.

Lower levels of diagnosed asthma were also observed for all farm-produced dairy products and eating farm eggs also provided protection against hayfever. However, these foods only provided increased protection when the children also drank unpasteurised farm milk – not in isolation.

None of the farm products had any effect on eczema levels.

"All the children drinking unpasteurised farm milk and eating other farm-related dairy products showed the same level of protection against asthma and allergies, regardless of whether they were living on a farm or not" says lead author Marco Waser, a doctor in natural sciences from the Institute of Social and Preventative Medicine at the University of Basel, Switzerland.

"This is an important finding as it rules out other protective factors that farm life may provide, such as exposure to microbial compounds in animal shed and farm homes. For example, earlier studies have shown that farm children are less likely to be affected by pollen.

"Our research showed that the children who enjoyed the best protection from asthma and allergies had been drinking farm milk since their first year of life."

About half of the parents who told researchers that their child regularly drank farm milk said that they did not boil the milk before giving it to them. The protective results were the same, regardless of whether milk was boiled or not.

However, as drinking raw milk is not recommended, especially for young children, this may have encouraged parents to say they boiled milk when they didn’t, indicating a higher level of raw milk consumption.

"The results of this study indicate that all children drinking farm milk have a lower chance of developing asthma and hayfever" says Dr Waser.

"However raw milk may contain pathogens such as salmonella or enterohaemorrhagic E coli and its consumption may have serious health risks.

"We need to develop a deeper understanding of why farm milk offers children this higher level or protection and investigate ways of making the product safer, while retaining these protective qualities.

"At the moment we can only speculate about why farm milk protects children against asthma and allergies. Perhaps it is because farm milk has different levels or compositions of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes to milk sold in shops.

"It is interesting that there was no difference in the farm milk results regardless of whether it was boiled before consumption. As boiling is likely to have been over-reported, this could indicate that pasteurisation is not as important as previously thought, as compounds other than microbes may offer a protective role.

"But despite our findings, we cannot recommend consumption of raw farm milk as a preventative measure against asthma and allergies."

More than 35 researchers took part in the PARSIFAL study – Prevention of allergy risk factors for sensitisation in children related to farming and anthroposophic lifestyle.

###
The work was carried out with research grants from the European Union, the Swiss National Research Foundation, the Swiss-based Kuehne-Foundation and the Swedish Foundation for Health Care Science and Allergy Research.
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PostPosted: Mon May 28, 2007 7:59 am    Post subject: The Strange History of Cheese Reply with quote

The Strange History of Cheese
By Andrea Thompson, LiveScience Staff Writer

posted: 28 May 2007 08:48 am ET

For many, the mild, slightly nutty flavor of Gruyère is the perfect addition to a steaming bowl of French onion soup or a ham sandwich, but for the medieval peasants who first created it, the flavor was secondary to matters of survival and location.

Gruyère resulted from the historic collision of food scarcity and a mountainous geography, yielding a distinct and rigorous cheese-making process.

In fact, all cheese types—there are now more than 1,400--initially arose due to the unique constraints forced by geography and the human effort to preserve the valuable commodity that is milk, says food scientist Paul Kindstedt, of the University of Vermont.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/his.....ience.html
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 02, 2007 7:50 am    Post subject: Tea—Milking It Reply with quote

Week of June 2, 2007; Vol. 171, No. 22

Tea—Milking It
Janet Raloff

I'm a serious tea drinker. I'll down it hot or cold, plain or with lemon. Like most Americans, however, I don't regularly add milk. But when my colleague David Lindley, an editor here at Science News, was growing up, his family certainly did.

Being a Brit, David comes from a culture that holds considerable reverence for this brew and might be accused of being fussy about its preparation. When I add milk to tea, which I do only occasionally, I'm not careful about the amount. It's typically a big slosh—and always added after the tea is fully brewed and sitting in a mug.

In the Lindley household, by contrast, "a little milk was put into the bottom of a cup—just a touch," before any tea was added, David notes. And his mom invariably made tea in the pot, brewing it from some black, loose-leaf variety.

For the full article:

http://sciencenews.org/articles/20070602/food.asp
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 18, 2007 9:10 am    Post subject: Protein-enriched milk may reduce need for antibiotics in ani Reply with quote

Protein-enriched milk may reduce need for antibiotics in animal feed
18 June 2007
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

The search for ways to promote growth of farm animals without adding antibiotics to feed has led scientists in Taiwan to an advance toward genetically engineering animals that produce higher levels of a natural growth-promoting protein in their milk.

In a study scheduled for publication in the June 13 issue of ACS'sJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, a bi-weekly journal, Winston T. K. Cheng and colleagues point out that the protein, lactoferrin (LF), has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory actions and may serve as an alternative to antibiotics in agriculture. The researchers genetically engineered laboratory mice to produce milk enriched in pig LF, and studied the growth of 10 generations of mice pups fed on the milk. Mice fed LF-enriched milk grew 10-15 per cent faster than those fed on ordinary milk.

In animal husbandry, it is thought that supplementing the diet of neonatal pigs with porcine LF may decrease mortality rates of piglets due to diarrhea and anemia by rendering them more resistant to common infectious agents, the report states. Transgenic animals expressing the LF protein in the mammary gland and secreting high levels of LF in the milk may be generated to produce a whole new herd of diarrhea- and anemia-resistant piglets with better growth performance and commercial value.

ARTICLE #3 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Recombinant Porcine Lactoferrin Expressed in the Milk of Transgenic Mice Enhances Offspring Growth Performance

DOWNLOAD PDF http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....63759o.pdf
DOWNLOAD HTML http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....3759o.html
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PostPosted: Tue Jul 10, 2007 9:08 am    Post subject: Boosting key milk nutrients may help lower type 2 diabetes r Reply with quote

Weber Shandwick Worldwide

Boosting key milk nutrients may help lower type 2 diabetes risk

New research finds combination of calcium and vitamin D may offer protection against type 2 diabetes
WASHINGTON, D.C. (July 10, 2007) – Most Americans fail to get the calcium and vitamin D they need, but this shortfall could be affecting more than their bones. It may, at least in part, be one reason behind the epidemic of type 2 diabetes, suggests new research conducted at Tufts University. Drinking more milk – a leading source of calcium and vitamin D in the American diet – could help decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes by nearly 15 percent, according to the new meta-analysis and review published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (1).

In the thorough analysis of previously published studies, the researchers found chronically low levels of vitamin D were linked to as high as 46 percent greater risk of type 2 diabetes. Yet boosting vitamin D alone would likely have little effect in healthy adults. Instead, the researchers suggested that a combination of vitamin D and calcium, like that found in milk, would have the greatest potential to help prevent diabetes, especially among those at highest risk for the disease.

Examining the intake of milk and milk products specifically, the researchers found there was nearly a 15 percent lower risk for type 2 diabetes among individuals with the highest dairy intake (3-5 servings per day) compared to those getting less than 1 ½ servings each day.

Most of the studies assessed were observational and the limited number of intervention trials makes definitive conclusions difficult, yet the Tufts researchers suggest calcium and vitamin D may affect the body’s ability to produce or utilize insulin, the hormone the body makes to process sugar that is impaired in those with diabetes and pre-diabetes.

Beside calcium and vitamin D, milk is the primary beverage source of magnesium, which a second meta-analysis found may also reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (2). The analysis concludes that for every 100 milligram increase in magnesium up to the recommended dietary intake, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes decreased by 15 percent.

Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance syndrome (or pre-diabetes) affect a staggering 75 million Americans and death rates from diabetes have increased nearly 45 percent over the past 20 years, elevating the importance of finding new ways to treat and prevent this deadly disease.

Milk is a primary source of calcium and vitamin D in the American diet. In fact, government reports indicate that more than 70 percent of the calcium in our nation’s food supply comes from milk and milk products. Additionally, milk is one of the few food sources of vitamin D, which is fast emerging as a “super nutrient.”

The recommended three servings of lowfat or fat-free milk provides 900 mg of calcium, 300 IU of vitamin D and 80 mg of magnesium daily.


###
(1) Pittas AG, Lau J, Hu FB, Dawson-Hughes B. REVIEW: The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2007;92:2017-2029.

(2) Larsson SC, Wolk A. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2007. doi: 10.1111; epub ahead of print.
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