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(Environment) Indoor Air Pollution

 
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adedios
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PostPosted: Wed May 10, 2006 7:33 am    Post subject: (Environment) Indoor Air Pollution Reply with quote






Indoor air purifiers that produce even small amounts of ozone may be risky for health, UC Irvine study finds

Scientists verify that ionic and other air purifiers add to pollutants already in a room in levels that can exceed health standards

University of California, Irvine
Irvine, Calif., May 9, 2006

In a small, poorly ventilated room, an indoor air purifier that produces even a few milligrams of ozone per hour can create an ozone level that exceeds public health standards, researchers at UC Irvine have found.

Scientists also discovered that ozone produced by air purifiers adds to ozone already present in any room – a prediction that had never been experimentally verified in a realistic indoor environment.

“These results mean that people operating air purifiers indoors are more prone to being exposed to ozone levels in excess of public health standards,” said Sergey A. Nizkorodov, assistant professor of chemistry in the School of Physical Sciences at UCI.

Nizkorodov and UCI chemistry students Nicole Britigan and Ahmad Alshawa published their research in the current issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. Their findings will be studied by officials deciding how to regulate the distribution of indoor air purifiers.

California lawmakers are considering legislation that would require the California Air Resources Board to adopt regulations to reduce emissions from indoor air cleaners by 2008. The state board and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have issued advisories discouraging use of air purifiers, but the devices remain on the market because no agency has the outright authority to regulate how much ozone they produce.

Indoor air purification has gained widespread popularity with the surge in air pollution problems in urban areas.

Air purifiers target dust, pollen, airborne particles and volatile organic compounds, which are emitted by a wide range of products, including paint, cleaning supplies and pesticides. These pollutants are believed to aggravate respiratory and other health problems.

Indoor air purifiers are advertised as safe household products for health-conscious people – especially those who suffer from allergies and asthma – but some purifiers produce ozone during operation. For example, certain widely used ionic air purifiers, which work by charging airborne particles and electrostatically attracting them to metal electrodes, emit ozone as a byproduct of ionization.

Depending on the design, some ionic purifiers emit a few milligrams of ozone per hour, which is roughly equal to the amount emitted by a dry-process photocopier during continuous operation.

Ozone can damage the lungs, causing chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath and throat irritation. It can also worsen chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and compromise the ability of the body to fight respiratory infections – even in healthy people.

For this study, the research group tested several types of air purifiers for their ability to produce ozone at 40 percent to 50 percent relative humidity in various indoor environments, including offices, bathrooms, bedrooms and cars.

Placed inside a room, the air purifier was turned on, and the ozone concentration buildup was tracked until a steady level of ozone was reached. In many cases, indoor ozone levels far exceeded outdoor safety guidelines, which in California are 90 parts per billion for one hour and 70 parts per billion for eight hours.

The ozone level in some instances reached higher than 350 parts per billion – more than enough to trigger a Stage 2 smog alert if similar levels were detected outside. A Stage 2 alert last occurred in the Southern California coastal air basin in 1988.

Of the spaces tested, the largest increase in steady ozone levels occurred in small rooms with little ventilation, especially those containing materials that react slowly with ozone such as glossy ceramic tile, PVC tile and polyethylene, which is used in plastic. Ozone reacts quicker with materials such as carpet, cloth, rubber and certain metals, destroying itself in the process.

People who operate purifiers indoors are more likely to be exposed to ozone levels that exceed health standards because ozone from these devices adds to ozone that already exists in the room.

Said Nizkorodov: “If 30 parts per billion of ozone exist in the room because dirty outside air is leaking into the house, turning on an air purifier that generates 50 parts per billion of ozone creates a total ozone level of 80 parts per billion.”

About AirUCI: Nizkorodov is a researcher with AirUCI – Atmospheric Integrated Research Using Chemistry at Interfaces – a multi-investigator effort led by chemistry professor Barbara Finlayson-Pitts to better understand how air and water interact in the atmosphere and how those processes affect air quality and global climate change. In 2004, UCI was awarded a total of $7.5 million over five years from the National Science Foundation to establish AirUCI, an Environmental Molecular Science Institute – one of only seven currently funded EMSIs dedicated to understanding at the molecular level how human activity and nature contribute to global environmental problems.

About the University of California, Irvine: The University of California, Irvine is a top-ranked university dedicated to research, scholarship and community service. Founded in 1965, UCI is among the fastest-growing University of California campuses, with more than 24,000 undergraduate and graduate students and about 1,400 faculty members. The second-largest employer in dynamic Orange County, UCI contributes an annual economic impact of $3.3 billion. For more UCI news, visit www.today.uci.edu.

Television: UCI has a broadcast studio available for live or taped interviews. For more information, visit http://today.uci.edu/broadcast

News Radio: UCI maintains on campus an ISDN line for conducting interviews with its faculty and experts. The use of this line is available free-of-charge to radio news programs/stations who wish to interview UCI faculty and experts. Use of the ISDN line is limited by availability and approval by the university.

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Related Lessons on Air Pollution

http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=996
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=1192
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=1610

Questions to explore further this topic:

An introduction to toxic chemicals and environmental health risks you might encounter in everyday life, in everyday places

http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/

What is indoor air quality?

http://www.epa.gov/iaq/ia-intro.html
http://www.aiha.org/Content/Ac.....MyHome.htm

What is indoor air pollution?

http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.....mp;b=35381
http://www.inq7.net/globalnati...../07-03.htm

Sources of indoor air pollution

http://www.epa.gov/iaq/rpart.html

Indoor air pollution in developing countries

http://www.who.int/indoorair/en/
http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/.....oorair.pdf

Health impacts of indoor air pollution

http://www.who.int/indoorair/health_impacts/en/

Broader impacts

http://www.who.int/indoorair/impacts/en/

Interventions

http://www.who.int/indoorair/interventions/en/

Clearing your home of indoor air pollutants

http://www.epa.gov/iaq/asthma/.....rifold.pdf

Help yourself to a healthy home

http://www.uwex.edu/healthyhome/tool/

Wood stoves and air quality

http://www.epa.gov/woodstoves/healthier.html

Painting and indoor air quality

http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/ex.....paint5.pdf
http://www.niehs.nih.gov/external/faq/paint.htm

"The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality"

http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/insidest.html

Air quality inside buildings

http://www.epa.gov/iaq/largebl.....ibeami.htm

Air quality inside schools

http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.....mp;b=36007
http://www.dehs.umn.edu/iaq/school/
http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schooldesign/

Indoor Air Pollutants

Asbestos
http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.....mp;b=35368
http://www.cal-iaq.org/cal-iaq%20asbestos.htm

Biological Pollutants
http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.....mp;b=35369

Carbon monoxide
http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.....mp;b=35332
http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.....mp;b=35375

Formaldehyde
http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.....mp;b=35379

Lead
http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.....mp;b=35333

Molds
http://www.cal-iaq.org/cal-iaq.....mation.htm
http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldguide.html
http://www.epa.gov/mold/mold_remediation.html

Ozone
http://www.cal-iaq.org/cal-iaq.....0ozone.htm

Pesticides
http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.....mp;b=35384

Radon
http://www.epa.gov/radon/radonqa1.html

Volatile Organic Compounds
http://www.cal-iaq.org/cal-iaq%20vocs.htm

Cigarette smoke
http://www.epa.gov/smokefree/pubs/etsbro.html
http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.....mp;b=35421
http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.....mp;b=35422
http://www.cal-iaq.org/cal-iaq.....osmoke.htm

What are air cleaners?

http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/airclean.html

"Ozone Generators that are Sold as Air Cleaners: An Assessment of Effectiveness and Health Consequences"

http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/ozonegen.html

Flooding and indoor air pollution

http://www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/flood.html

Additional indoor air quality publications

http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/iaq.html

GAMES

http://www.nmenv.state.nm.us/aqb/kids/index.html
http://www.epa.gov/kids/
http://www.epa.gov/students/


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 3:16 pm; edited 1 time in total
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PostPosted: Wed May 24, 2006 7:46 am    Post subject: Study warns of cleaning product risks Reply with quote

Study warns of cleaning product risks

By Liese Greensfelder, Media Relations | 22 May 2006
University of California, Berkeley

BERKELEY – When used indoors under certain conditions, many common household cleaners and air fresheners emit toxic pollutants at levels that may lead to health risks, according to a new study by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Exposure levels to some of the pollutants - and to the secondary pollutants formed when some of the products mix with ozone - may exceed regulatory guidelines when a large surface is cleaned in a small room or when the products are used regularly, resulting in chronic exposure, according to the study.

The study is the first to measure emissions and concentrations of primary and secondary toxic compounds produced by these products under typical indoor use conditions, and it examines the potential hazards of small-scale yet widespread utilization of an array of products designed for household use.

"We've focused a lot of effort in the last decades on controlling the big sources of air pollution and on the chemicals in consumer products that contribute to outdoor ozone formation. However, now we've learned that we need to pay attention to other aspects of pollution sources that are right under our nose," said William Nazaroff, a UC Berkeley professor of environmental engineering and the study's lead author.

To comply with its mandate to protect public health and welfare, for the past four decades the California Air Resources Board (ARB) has been developing and implementing regulatory programs to reduce air pollution in the state. These regulations also cover emissions of volatile organic compounds from consumer products used in homes and institutions.

Several years ago, when a handful of new studies raised the concern that consumer products may be contributing to indoor pollution levels in ways that were not fully understood, the ARB commissioned Nazaroff and his team to study the problem.

Four years in the making, the team's 330-page study and report, "Indoor Air Chemistry: Cleaning Agents, Ozone and Toxic Air Contaminants," was posted online by the ARB on Wednesday, May 10.

The ARB asked Nazaroff and his team to focus their work in two areas: an investigation of toxic air contaminants in household cleaning products and air fresheners, especially a class of chemicals known as ethylene-based glycol ethers; and an examination of the chemistry that occurs when such products are used indoors - in particular, products that contain a reactive group of chemicals called terpenes.

Ethylene-based glycol ethers are common, water-soluble solvents used in a variety of cleaning agents, latex paints and other products. They are classified as hazardous air pollutants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and as toxic air contaminants by California's Air Resources Board. Their toxicity varies with their chemical structure.

Terpenes are a class of chemicals found in pine, lemon and orange oils that are used in many consumer products either as solvents or to provide a distinctive scent. Although terpenes themselves are not considered toxic, some recent studies have shown that they may react with ozone to produce a number of toxic compounds. (The primary constituent of smog, ozone enters the indoor environment from infiltration of outdoor air, but is also produced indoors by some office machines such as copiers or printers, and by some devices marketed as "air purifiers" that purposely emit ozone into the indoor environment.)

The research team's first task was to determine which household products contain terpenes and glycol ethers, and in what quantities. It compiled a list of the household cleaners and air fresheners available at any of five chain retail outlets in Northern California, then examined the labels and advertising claims (e.g. "pine-scented") for these products and reviewed available product data sheets. Based on this information, they selected the 21 products most likely to contain significant amounts of terpenes and ethylene-based glycol ethers: four air fresheners and 17 cleaning products, including at least one each of disinfectants, general-purpose degreasers, general-purpose cleaners, wood cleaners, furniture maintenance products, spot removers and multi-purpose solvents.

A complete chemical analysis of these 21 products revealed that:

• Twelve contained terpenes and other ozone-reactive compounds at levels ranging from 0.2 to 26 percent by mass.

• Six contained levels of ethylene-based glycol ethers of 0.8 to 9.6 percent by mass.

• Among the four air fresheners studied, three contained substantial quantities of terpenes (9-14 percent by mass)

When the researchers tested the terpene-containing products in the presence of ozone, they found that reactions produced very small particles with properties like those found in smog and haze; other oxidation products; and formaldehyde, a respiratory irritant that is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen. (This designation by the International Agency for Cancer Research is reserved for substances for which there is sufficient evidence to conclude that they cause cancer in humans.) The amounts of terpenes that were converted into these pollutants was dependent on the amount of ozone present.

After completing their chemical analyses, the researchers ran a series of 18 experiments to determine the levels of exposure people might be subjected to when using the products in a confined space. The tests were conducted in a 230-square-foot room with ventilation at an ordinary level which provided approximately one air change every two hours. In some tests of terpene-containing products, ozone was introduced into the room at levels mimicking those that could occur in households or offices.

The products were used in various ways according to package directions: some at full-strength and others at various dilutions as recommended on their labels. In some tests, used cleaning supplies such as paper towels and sponges were left in the room. In others, supplies were promptly removed.

The tests produced various results - some reassuring, and some raising concerns.

The good news, the researchers reported, is that when people use the products under ordinary circumstances, their exposure to ethylene-based glycol ethers, formaldehyde and fine particles will normally not reach guideline values: that is, levels set by regulatory agencies as the maximum exposure levels believed to be safe. However, the authors pointed out, because formaldehyde is also released from other sources such as plywood and pressed wood products that are found in most buildings, any increase in formaldehyde emissions is undesirable.

In several realistic use scenarios, the tests showed that people could be exposed to potentially dangerous levels of toxic pollutants. The scenarios included:

• Cleaning in a small, moderately ventilated bathroom. In calculations based on emissions from one of the glycol-ether containing products, the team found that a person who spends 15 minutes cleaning scale off of a shower stall could inhale three times the "acute one-hour exposure limit" for this compound set by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment.

• Air freshener and ozone in a child's bedroom. This scenario could occur when people use both air fresheners and ozone-generating devices simultaneously in a room. This could lead to exposures to formaldehyde that are 25 percent higher than California's guideline value. Because other sources of formaldehyde could also be present in the room, exposure to formaldehyde would probably be even higher, the report states.

• Cleaning when outdoor ozone levels are high. This scenario simulates an apartment in Southern California on a day when the mid-afternoon outdoor ozone concentration is high. A person who stays in the kitchen for two hours after using a moderate amount of one of the terpene-containing products would breathe in about one quarter of the total daily guideline value for particulate matter.

• Multi-house cleaning by a professional home cleaner. Under this scenario, a person who cleans four houses a day, five days per week, 50 weeks per year, would take in about 80 micrograms per day of formaldehyde, double the guideline value set by California's Proposition 65. In addition, the person's intake of fine particulate matter during the hours spent cleaning would exceed the average federal guideline level for an entire year. These quantities are in addition to the formaldehyde and particulate matter that the person would be exposed to from all other sources and activities during the year.

The take-home message from these studies, according to Nazaroff, is that everyone - but especially cleaning professionals - should be cautious about overuse of products with high levels of ethylene-based glycol ethers and terpenes. Rooms should be ventilated during and after cleaning, some products should be used in diluted solutions as opposed to full-strength, and cleaning supplies should be promptly removed from occupied spaces once cleaning is done. Also, people should avoid the use of ozone generators or ionizing air cleaners, especially in the same space where terpene-containing cleaning products or air fresheners are being used.

The report is an important milestone that highlights the need to investigate potential health effects of ultrafine particles produced in such reactions, said Bart Croes, chief of the ARB's Research Division.

"Dr. Nazaroff and his team have done a very thorough scientific assessment of the emissions from cleaning products and how they contribute to exposures of the users," Croes said. "Their results indicate that we need to look beyond the directly emitted compounds."

The study cost $446,865, an amount wholly funded by the ARB.

The report's other authors are Beverly K. Coleman, a UC Berkeley Ph.D. student with Nazaroff; Hugo Destaillats, Alfred T. Hodgson, Melissa M. Lunden and Brett C. Singer, all at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; DeLing Liu, who was at UC Berkeley when she conducted the work but is now with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.; and Charles J. Weschler, at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and the Technical University of Denmark.
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PostPosted: Wed Jun 14, 2006 11:55 am    Post subject: Airborne mold spores increase kids' risk for multiple allerg Reply with quote

University of Cincinnati
14 June 2006
Airborne mold spores increase kids' risk for multiple allergies


CINCINNATI--University of Cincinnati (UC) researchers say exposure to a certain group of fungal spores--abundant in the air that we breathe every day--can make young children more susceptible to developing multiple allergies later in life.
The team found that infants who were exposed to basidiospores and other airborne fungal spores--specifically penicillium/aspergillus and alternaria--early in life were more likely to develop allergies to mold, pollen, dust mites, pet dander and certain foods as they grew older.

This is the first study to show a relationship between specific airborne fungal spores and an increased risk for multiple allergies in children, the UC team reports in an upcoming edition of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology and an early online edition June 14.

A fungus is a plantlike organism that grows by releasing tiny reproductive cells (spores) into the air. Mold is a type of fungus that can grow on any moist surface--including wood, drywall and cement.

Previous allergy studies focused on visible mold or total mold concentrations, not the identification of specific airborne fungal spores. The UC-led study showed that exposure to specific airborne fungal spores may increase allergic reactions and others could help reduce them.

These findings reinforce the idea that not all fungi are created equal, says Tiina Reponen, PhD, professor of environmental health at UC and corresponding author on the study.

"It turns out that the health effects of airborne fungal spores are more complicated than we thought," she says. "It's not enough to look just at total mold in our homes and offices. We need to understand how specific types of mold interact with each other in the environment to affect our respiratory health. Some fungi can have harmful effects on the body, but others may be beneficial."


"There are literally thousands of different types of mold in the air we breathe," adds Melissa Osborne, a graduate of UC's environmental and occupational hygiene program and study lead author. "But because mold exists naturally in the outdoors, it's very difficult to completely remove mold spores from the air."

Osborne conducted this research while pursuing her master's at UC and is currently employed as an environmental consultant at Quantus Analytical, a mold and allergen laboratory and consulting group in Cincinnati.

Using a small air sampling device, the UC research team collected fungal spores from the homes of 144 infants enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS).

The CCAAPS, funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, is a five-year study examining the effects of environmental particulates on childhood respiratory health and allergy development.

Air samples were collected for a total of 48 hours in the child's primary activity room and in the child's bedroom during sleep. Samples were analyzed for both total and individual spore counts.

"We found that, at least in children, some fungi may cause allergic sensitization while other fungal types may actually inhibit the development of allergies," explains Osborne.

"But very little is known about how infant allergies to environmental allergens develop," she adds, "and more research is needed before we will fully understand the impact of fungi as an allergen in infants."

If mold is found in the home, the UC team recommends following the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-accepted guidelines for removing it. They also say any moisture issues, such as roof or plumbing leaks, should be resolved immediately to avoid mold development. Additional information on household mold issues can be found at www.epa.gov/moldresources.html
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 17, 2006 7:14 pm    Post subject: Household cleaners + ozone --> new indoor pollution probl Reply with quote

Household cleaners + ozone --> new indoor pollution problem
Environmental Science & Technology
17 July 2006

Ground-level ozone pollution -- a summertime problem in many urban areas -- also may contribute to a previously unrecognized form of indoor air pollution, scientists are reporting.

Ozone seeps indoors from the outdoor air. Ozone also forms indoors from operation of certain increasingly popular electronic "air purifiers," as well as printers, faxes and other office equipment. William Nazaroff, Hugo Destaillats and colleagues report that ozone can interact with ingredients in household cleaning products and air fresheners to produce a group of secondary air pollutants.

Their tests included a pine-oil cleaner, an orange-based household cleaner and a plug-in air freshener. Ozone interacted with the products to form secondary air pollutants that included formaldehyde, a known human carcinogen and mucus membrane irritant. Many other household cleaning and air freshening products contain similar chemical compounds that could interact in the same way, the researchers say in a report scheduled for publication in the July 15 issue of ACS Environmental Science & Technology.


"Indoor Secondary Pollutants From Household Product Emissions in the Presence of Ozone: A Bench-Scale Chamber Study"

DOWNLOAD PDF:
http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....52198z.pdf
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http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....2198z.html
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 28, 2006 6:57 am    Post subject: Chemical in many air fresheners may reduce lung function Reply with quote

NIH/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
July 27, 2006

Chemical in many air fresheners may reduce lung function

New research shows that a chemical compound found in many air fresheners, toilet bowl cleaners, mothballs and other deodorizing products, may be harmful to the lungs. Human population studies at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), a part of the National Institutes of Health, found that exposure to a volatile organic compound (VOC), called 1,4 dichlorobenzene (1,4 DCB) may cause modest reductions in lung function.

"Even a small reduction in lung function may indicate some harm to the lungs," said NIEHS researcher Stephanie London, M.D., lead investigator on the study. "The best way to protect yourself, especially children who may have asthma or other respiratory illnesses, is to reduce the use of products and materials that contain these compounds."

The researchers examined the relationship between blood concentrations of 11 common volatile organic compounds and lung function measures in a representative sample of 953 adults. VOCs are a diverse set of compounds emitted as gases from thousands of commonly used products, including tobacco smoke, pesticides, paints, and cleaning products. VOCs are also released through automotive exhaust. The researchers found that of the common VOCs analyzed, which included benzene, styrene, toluene, and acetone, only the compound 1,4 DCB was associated with reduced pulmonary function and this effect was seen even after careful adjustment for smoking, The researchers found that 96 percent of the population samples had detectable 1,4 DCB blood concentration levels. African Americans had the highest exposure levels and non-Hispanic whites the lowest.

This particular VOC, 1,4 DCB, is a white solid compound with a distinctive aroma, similar to mothballs. It is typically used primarily as a space deodorant in products such as room deodorizers, urinal and toilet bowl blocks, and as an insecticide fumigant for moth control.

"Because people spend so much time indoors where these products are used, it's important that we understand the effects that even low levels might have on the respiratory system," said Leslie Elliott, Ph.D. a researcher on the NIEHS-funded study. "There has been very little research on the health effects of this particular compound in non-occupational settings."

The researchers used data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a special component of the study specifically designed to assess the level of common pesticides and VOCs in the US population. NHANES III is a nationally representative survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1988-1994 to determine the health and nutritional status of the U.S. population.

Data from 953 adults 20-59 years old who had both VOC blood measures and pulmonary function measures are included in the study published in the August issue of Environmental Health Perspectives. Four pulmonary function measures were used in the analyses. The researchers found modest reductions in pulmonary function with increasing blood concentrations of 1,4 DCB.

There was approximately a 4 percent decrease in the test which measures forced expiratory volume in 1(FEV1) second between the highest and lowest levels of exposure. FEV1 is a commonly used index for assessing airway function and obstruction.

The researchers assessed the influence of other factors in an individual's environment that may be related to pulmonary function and to 1,4-DCB exposure, such as type of heating, use of wood fires, age of house, presence of furred pets, occupation, socioeconomic status, environmental tobacco smoke, smoking history, and diagnosis of asthma or emphysema. The authors noted that participants might have been exposed to other agents not assessed in this study1that have been linked to both respiratory impairment and levels of 1,4-DCB.

"This research suggests that 1,4-DCB may exacerbate respiratory diseases," said David A. Schwartz, M.D., NIEHS Director. "As part of the new disease-focused approach at NIEHS, researchers will use this information to better understand the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases." The NIEHS unveiled a new strategic plan, "New Frontiers in Environmental Sciences and Human Health," in May aimed at challenging and energizing the scientific community to use environmental health sciences to understand the causes of disease and to improve human health. The plan can be accessed at http://www.niehs.nih.gov/external/plan2006.


###
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), a component of the National Institutes of Health, supports research to understand the effects of the environment on human health. For more information on environmental health topics, please visit our website at http://www.niehs.nih.gov/

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) -- The Nation's Medical Research Agency -- includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and it investigates the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov

Reference: Elliott L, Longnecker MP, Kissling GE, and London SJ. Volatile Organic Compounds and Pulmonary Function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Environmental Health Perspectives. Volume 114, Number 8, August 2006. View Article Abstract http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/.....tract.html
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PostPosted: Sun Aug 20, 2006 8:00 am    Post subject: Holy Smoke: Burning incense, candles pollute air in churches Reply with quote

Week of Aug. 19, 2006; Vol. 170, No. 8 , p. 116

Holy Smoke: Burning incense, candles pollute air in churches
Ben Harder

Incense and candles release substantial quantities of pollutants that may harm health, a detailed new study of air quality in a Roman Catholic church suggests.

Even brief exposure to contaminated air during a religious service could be harmful to some people, says atmospheric scientist Stephan Weber of the University of Duisburg-Essen in Essen, Germany. A previous study in the Netherlands indicated that the pollutants in smoke from incense and candles may be more toxic than fine-particle pollution from sources such as vehicle engines.

For the full article:

http://sciencenews.org/articles/20060819/fob3.asp
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 22, 2006 6:28 pm    Post subject: Household levels of mold following Hurricane Katrina Reply with quote

Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health
22 September 2006

Household levels of mold following Hurricane Katrina surpass some agricultural environments

Mold and bacteria levels in New Orleans homes warrant use of strong respiratory protection
In a study assessing flood clean-up procedures in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina, a team of scientists led by researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, report that household levels of mold and bacterial endotoxins in three single-family homes were so considerable that they equaled or surpassed those in waste- water treatment plants, cotton mills, and agricultural environments. The study is the first comprehensive report documenting levels of mold and bacteria in homes that received sustained flooding.

Following Hurricane Katrina, many New Orleans homes remained flooded for weeks, promoting heavy mold growth. These three New Orleans homes were selected for the study based on their levels of flood water, whether they previously were structurally sound, and if they were located in an area likely to be rebuilt. The study examined the extent to which homes that experienced significant and prolonged exposure to flood waters could be satisfactorily cleaned to enable reconstruction. Homes were inspected for roof leakage, standing water and the extent of mold throughout their interiors, as well as heating ventilation and air conditioning.

"From our data, it is clear that levels of mold were so high that we strongly recommend that those entering, cleaning, and repairing flood-damaged homes wear respirators that are more protective than plain dust masks," said Ginger Chew, ScD, assistant professor of environmental health sciences at Columbia's Mailman School of Public Health. "While our assessments of the data are based on a small demonstration project, the results give a clear picture of what is acceptable in flood clean-up procedures."

The project was sponsored by the NIEHS Center for Environmental Health in Northern Manhattan and Enterprise Community Partners, and was carried out by the Mailman School of Public Health, the National Center for Healthy Housing (NCHH) and several other academic institutions including Tulane School of Public Health, the University of Cincinnati, Harvard School of Public Health, The University of Iowa, and Case Western Reserve University.

"Our goal was to make recommendations for the safe removal of flood-damaged articles, safe re-entry into homes, and safe levels of worker protection," said Jonathan Wilson, deputy director of the National Center for Healthy Housing.

According to researchers, these findings not only will inform those involved in current clean-up activities in New Orleans and other environments, but will benefit those responding to any future disasters that may occur.

###
The findings will be published in the December issue of Environmental Health Perspectives. To access the study currently online, visit http://www.ehponline.org/membe.....8/9258.pdf

About the Mailman School of Public Health

The only accredited school of public health in New York City, and among the first in the nation Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health provides instruction and research opportunities to more than 900 graduate students in pursuit of masters and doctoral degrees. Its students and more than 270 multi-disciplinary faculty engage in research and service in the city, nation, and around the world, concentrating on biostatistics, environmental health sciences, epidemiology, health policy and management, population and family health, and sociomedical sciences. www.mailman.hs.columbia.edu

National Center for Healthy Housing is the only national non-profit organization dedicated to developing and promoting practical measures to protect children from residential environmental hazards while preserving affordable housing. NCHH seeks to find scientifically valid and practical strategies to make homes safe from hazards, to alert low- income families about housing-related health risks, and to help them protect their children. NCHH also works with governmental and non-governmental organizations to develop standards and programs and guide their implementation through insurers, lenders, federal and state laws and regulations, community organizations, and the courts. www.centerforhealthyhousing.org
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PostPosted: Tue Oct 03, 2006 12:36 pm    Post subject: California to Measure Toxic Pollutants in People Reply with quote

California to Measure Toxic Pollutants in People

By Christopher Wanjek
LiveScience’s Bad Medicine Columnist
posted: 03 October 2006
10:28 am ET

The Governor of California wants to terminate the toxins in your body. Unfortunately he's up against a foe more insidious than anything he ever faced in the movies.

Last Friday Gov. Schwarzenegger signed into law the nation's first statewide biomonitoring program. The plan is to collect blood, urine, breast milk and hair from a few thousand Californians who volunteer to have their bodies tested for pollutants.

What's in you is bound to scare you. Locked in fat cells and bone and circulating through your blood is a potentially toxic cocktail of thousands of human-made chemicals, some of which have been banned for decades. They have names with pronunciations as troublesome as the chemicals themselves, such as mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....oxins.html
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 02, 2007 7:42 am    Post subject: Standardized house dust aids health researchers Reply with quote

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
1 February 2007

Standardized house dust aids health researchers

Chemists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have created a standardized form of common house dust to support environmental scientists studying our everyday exposure to a catalog of potentially hazardous chemicals.

Although a "standard house dust" may sound funny, environmental scientists are quite serious about the potential for household grime to harbor harmful chemicals. A 2004 study by NIST and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for example, found high concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in household dust*. PBDEs were widely used as flame retardants in consumer products but have been phased out due to concerns over their toxicity. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), once commonly used in electrical equipment as an insulator, have not been produced since 1977 because of their toxicity, but still are found in the environment.

Accurate assessments of everyday exposure to many of these contaminants are difficult because of both the complexity of the analysis and the small quantities involved. "PCBs," for example, is shorthand for dozens of chemically similar compounds that may be found in hundreds of combinations of only a few micrograms each in a kilogram of dust. To provide environmental scientists with an accurate baseline for calibrating their tests, NIST prepared a reference sample of typical house dust that has been certified for the concentrations of over 80 potentially hazardous chemicals.

The dust was collected, with assistance from the EPA, from vacuum cleaner bags collected from homes, cleaning services, motels and hotels in the states of North Carolina, Maryland, Ohio, New Jersey, Montana and Wisconsin during 1993 and 1994, and sterilized, filtered, homogenized and analyzed. Each 10-gram sample of Standard Reference Material 2585, "Organic Contaminants in House Dust," is certified by NIST for the concentrations of 33 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 30 PCBs, four chlorinated pesticides and 15 PBDEs. Reference values—measurements believed to be accurate but not meeting NIST criteria for a "certified" value—are provided for 33 additional PAHs, 12 additional PCBs, 10 additional chlorinated pesticides and three additional PBDEs.

Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) are among the most widely distributed and used products from NIST. The agency prepares, analyzes and distributes well over a thousand different materials that are used throughout the world to check the accuracy of instruments and test procedures used in manufacturing, clinical chemistry, environmental monitoring, electronics, criminal forensics and dozens of other fields.


###
For information on SRM 2585, see https://srmors.nist.gov/view_detail.cfm?srm=2585

*See "Flame Retardant Exposure Linked to House Dust," NIST Tech Beat, Jan. 5, 2005. www.nist.gov/public_affairs/te......htm#flame
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PostPosted: Fri Feb 16, 2007 7:49 am    Post subject: Air contaminants databases ease healthy homes planning Reply with quote

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
15 February 2007

Air contaminants databases ease healthy homes planning

Air pollution sources are everywhere in the home, from the bacon and eggs frying in the kitchen, to the woodburning stove in the family room, the newly painted hallway, and even the carpet in the living room. To help estimate the seriousness of these and other indoor pollutant sources as well as to devise ways to reduce possible health impacts, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed searchable databases of relevant product emission studies.

NIST researchers also have created a software tool called ContamLink that can transfer selected information from the databases into CONTAM, an indoor air quality modeling software program that predicts airflows and contaminant concentrations in multizone building systems. Together—the electronic databases, ContamLink, and the CONTAM program—should significantly accelerate our understanding of indoor air pollution.

The new databases allow investigators to access immediately information that previously was available in scientific literature, but required significant time to locate. The databases include emission rates for consumer products, cooking and combustion appliances (such as gas stoves); and data on contaminant transport mechanisms, including particle deposition, contaminant sorption and different ventilation systems filters. Two of the five databases are from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Research Council of Canada. Researchers can download the databases, and with ContamLink, selectively obtain relevant information for inclusion in CONTAM or other indoor air quality models. Database entries are not intended to be all-inclusive, but rather representative of the literature. Researchers and other practitioners are encouraged to expand the databases with their own data using the data entry format provided.


###
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) Healthy Homes Initiative supported NIST's development of the databases and software tool. Information on both are available in NISTIR 7364, Database Tools for Modeling Emissions and Control of Air Pollutants from Consumer Products, Cooking and Combustion available on the CONTAM Web site: www.bfrl.nist.gov/IAQanalysis/software/
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PostPosted: Thu Feb 22, 2007 7:57 am    Post subject: In presence of fragrant cleaning products, air purifiers tha Reply with quote

In presence of fragrant cleaning products, air purifiers that emit ozone can dirty the air
University of California, Irvine

Results of study may help California officials regulate indoor air purifiers

Irvine, Calif., February 21, 2007
Indoor air purifiers that produce even small quantities of ozone may actually make the air dirtier when used at the same time as household cleaning products, scientists at UC Irvine have discovered.

Ozone emitted by purifiers reacts in the air with unsaturated volatile organic compounds such as limonene – a chemical added to cleaning supplies that gives them a lemon fragrance – to create additional microscopic particles, scientists found. Certain ionic purifiers emit ozone as a byproduct of ionization used for charging airborne particles and electrostatically attracting them to metal electrodes. Ozonolysis purifiers emit ozone at higher levels on purpose with the ostensible goal of oxidizing volatile organic compounds in the air.

This research appeared online this morning in Environmental Science and Technology.

“The public needs to be aware that every air purification approach has its limitation, and ionization air purifiers are no exception,” said Sergey Nizkorodov, assistant professor of chemistry at UCI and co-author of the study. “These air purifiers can not only elevate the level of ozone, a formidable air pollutant in itself, but also increase the amount of harmful particulate matter in indoor air.”

High levels of airborne particles can aggravate asthma and cardiovascular problems, and have been linked to higher death and lung cancer rates. Excess ozone can damage the lungs, causing chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath and throat irritation.

Nizkorodov and students Ahmad Alshawa and Ashley Russell conducted their experiment in a sparsely furnished office with a floor area of about 11 square meters. They placed an ozone-emitting air purifier in the middle of the room along with a large fan to better mix the air. At timed intervals, limonene vapor was injected in the room. Samples of the air were taken about one meter from the purifier and analyzed for ozone and particulate matter levels.

The researchers tested two types of air purifiers – a commercial ionic purifier that emits about 2 milligrams of ozone per hour, and an ozonolysis purifier that emits approximately 100 milligrams of ozone per hour.

Continuous operation of the ionic purifier without limonene resulted in a slight reduction in the average particle concentration, while operation of the ozonolysis purifier resulted in no detectable effect on the particle level. When limonene was added to the room, the particle concentration shot up in both cases, on some occasions up to 100 times the original level. Adding limonene to the room when a purifier was not operating produced little change in the overall particle level.

The scientists also developed a mathematical model that precisely matched their experimental observations. This model can be used to predict whether a given air purifier will make the air dirtier in a given indoor environment.

Scientific data on indoor air purifiers will be important as officials begin the process of regulating air purifiers that emit ozone. In September 2006, California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger signed into law Assembly Bill 2276, requiring the California Air Resources Board to develop regulations that will set emission standards and procedures for certifying and labeling the devices.

“State regulators should set a strict limit on the amount of ozone produced by air purifiers to protect the public from exposure to unhealthy ozone and particulate matter levels,” Nizkorodov said.

The National Science Foundation funded this study.


About the University of California, Irvine: The University of California, Irvine is a top-ranked university dedicated to research, scholarship and community service. Founded in 1965, UCI is among the fastest-growing University of California campuses, with more than 25,000 undergraduate and graduate students and about 1,800 faculty members. The second-largest employer in dynamic Orange County, UCI contributes an annual economic impact of $3.7 billion. For more UCI news, visit www.today.uci.edu.

Television: UCI has a broadcast studio available for live or taped interviews. For more information, visit www.today.uci.edu/broadcast.

News Radio: UCI maintains on campus an ISDN line for conducting interviews with its faculty and experts. The use of this line is available free-of-charge to radio news programs/stations who wish to interview UCI faculty and experts. Use of the ISDN line is subject to availability and approval by the university.
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PostPosted: Tue Apr 17, 2007 5:21 pm    Post subject: Study Documents the Power of Indoor Plants Reply with quote

Study Documents the Power of Indoor Plants

By Melinda Wenner
Special to LiveScience
posted: 17 April 2007
10:42 am ET

Green thumb or not, most of us have at least one houseplant because even the most pathetic mini-shrub offers our citified selves a slender link back to nature, according to new research.

Previous studies have suggested that plants lower the levels of indoor contaminants and keep people feeling healthier. After noticing how much joy his wife got from plants, Clas Bergvall, an ethnologist at Umeå University in Sweden, wanted to know what they did for people emotionally—so he dedicated his doctoral dissertation to the subject.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/oth.....lants.html
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PostPosted: Tue Jul 31, 2007 11:28 am    Post subject: Particle emissions from laser printers might pose health con Reply with quote

American Chemical Society
31 July 2007

Particle emissions from laser printers might pose health concern

Certain laser printers used in offices and homes release tiny particles of toner-like material into the air that people can inhale deep into lungs where they may pose a health hazard, scientists are reporting. Their study is scheduled for the August 1 online issue of the American Chemical Society’s Environmental Science & Technology (ES&T), a semi-monthly journal.

Lidia Morawska, Ph.D., and colleagues in Australia classified 17 out of 62 printers in the study as “high particle emitters” because they released such elevated quantities of particles, which the researchers believe to be toner, the ultrafine powder used in laser printers instead of ink to form text and images. One of the printers released particles into an experimental chamber at a rate comparable to the particle emissions from cigarette smoking, the report stated.

Thirty-seven of the 62 printers, on the other hand, released no particles that diminished air quality. Six released only low levels, and 2 medium levels. All printers were monitored in an open office, and the researchers recorded data on three laser printers in an experimental chamber. The study included popular models in the U. S. and Australia sold internationally under the Canon, HP Color Laserjet, Ricoh and Toshiba brand names.

Most of the printer-generated particles detected were ultrafine, Morawska said, explaining that such contaminants are easily inhaled into the smallest passageways of the lungs where they could pose “a significant health threat.” Previous studies have focused on emissions of volatile organic compounds, ozone, and toner particles from office printers and copiers. However, the research left broad gaps in scientific understanding of particle emissions and airborne concentrations of particles, the report noted.

Morawska and colleagues, who are with the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, initially were not trying to close that knowledge gap. “It wasn’t an area that we consciously decided to study,” Morawska said in an interview. “We came across it by chance. Initially we were studying the efficiency of ventilation systems to protect office settings from outdoor air pollutants. We soon realized that we were seeing air pollution originating indoors, from laser printers.”

The study found that indoor particle levels in the office air increased fivefold during work hours due to printer use. Printers emitted more particles when operating with new toner cartridges, and when printing graphics and images that require greater quantities of toner.

Funded by Queensland Department of Public Works and The Cooperative Research Centre for Construction Innovation, the ES&T report includes a list of the brands and models in the study classified by amount of particles emitted. As a result of the study, the scientists are calling on government officials to consider regulating emission levels from laser printers. “By all means, this is an important indoor source of pollution,” Morawska said. “There should be regulations.”

The health effects from inhaled ultrafine particles depend on particle composition, but the results can range from respiratory irritation to more severe illnesses, such as cardiovascular problems or cancer, Morawska said. “Even very small concentrations can be related to health hazards,” she said. “Where the concentrations are significantly elevated means there is potentially a considerable hazard.”

Larger particles also could be unhealthy without reaching the deepest parts of the lung. “Because they are larger,” Morawska added, “they contain more mass and can carry more toxins into the body. No matter how you look at it, there could be problems.”

Morawska said that more research on the health effects of inhaling printer-generated particles is needed. As a first step to lower risk, people should ensure that rooms in offices or houses are well ventilated to allow airborne particles to disperse.

###
The American Chemical Society-the world’s largest scientific society-is a non-profit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress and a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Its main offices are in Washington D.C., and Columbus, Ohio.
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 05, 2007 1:07 pm    Post subject: Skin oil -- ozone interactions worsen air quality in airplan Reply with quote

American Chemical Society
5 September 2007

Skin oil -- ozone interactions worsen air quality in airplanes


Airline passengers and crews who gripe about poor cabin air quality could have a new culprit to blame: the oils on their skin, hair and clothing. A study in the current issue of ACS’ Environmental Science & Technology suggests interactions between body oils and ozone found in airplane cabins could lead to the formation of chemical byproducts that might worsen nasal irritation, headaches, dry eyes and lips, and other common air traveler complaints.

In simulated flights lasting four hours, American and Danish researchers placed two groups of 16 volunteers in a mockup of an airline cabin and then exposed them to varying levels of ozone and air flow, including levels typically experienced in real flights. Consistently, ozone in the cabin increased production of identifiable chemical byproducts including nonanal and decanal, a pair of aldehyde compounds associated with headaches, nasal irritation and with other symptoms of “sick building” syndrome.

More than half of the byproducts were the result of reactions with skin, hair and clothing, according to Charles Weschler, Ph.D., the study’s lead author, who is with University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. These oxidative byproducts are produced when ozone reacts with squalene, oleic acid and other compounds in natural skin oils, he said.

“The role of these (by)products in the adverse health effects that have been associated with ozone is, at present, unknown,” Weschler said. “If these oxidation products are demonstrated to be harmful, simple steps can be taken to reduce their production in aircraft and buildings. For instance, installing ozone-destroying catalysts in airplane ventilation systems can help remove most of the ozone from incoming air, he noted.

In 2006, about 750 million people boarded commercial aircraft in the United States, according to the Federal Aviation Administration. At cruising altitude, the atmosphere outside of these aircraft contains very high ozone levels, frequently topping more than 500 parts per billion (ppb). According to FAA regulations, cabin ozone levels should not exceed 250 ppb at any time flying above 32,000 feet or average more than 100 ppb during any 4-hour flight segment that includes cruising at or above 27,000 feet.

Most wide-body planes are equipped with ozone-destroying catalysts in their ventilation systems, according to study co-author William Nazaroff, Ph.D., of the University of California, Berkeley. However, these catalysts are far less common on narrow-body aircraft. As a result, ozone in the cabin air of narrow-body planes can “exceed ozone levels in Washington, D.C., on a smoggy day,” Weschler said.

In fact, the study, which was supported by the FAA and the Danish Technical Research Council, could help scientists better understand the adverse effects of ground-level ozone, an important component of urban and regional air pollution. “Although this work was done in a simulated aircraft, the results certainly have implications beyond that,” Weschler said. “Any time you have a situation with high-occupant densities and elevated concentrations of ozone, the same kind of chemistry is going to occur.”


###
- Doug Dollemore

The American Chemical Society - the world’s largest scientific society - is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress and a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio.

Charles J. Weschler, Ph.D., is currently a visiting professor at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark in Lyngby. He is also an adjunct professor at the Environmental and Occupational Science Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey & Rutgers University. Co-author William W. Nazaroff, Ph.D., is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of California, Berkeley.
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 08, 2007 9:09 am    Post subject: Don't Bite the Dust Reply with quote

Week of Sept. 8, 2007; Vol. 172, No. 10

Don't Bite the Dust
Janet Raloff

Last week, Science News included a report that certain cat foods, especially fish-flavored canned entrees, deliver substantial quantities of brominated flame retardants to the pets' diets. The finding helps explain why blood concentrations of these ubiquitous chemicals—known as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)—tend to be much higher in cats than in people in the United States.

For the full article:

http://sciencenews.org/articles/20070908/food.asp
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PostPosted: Wed Oct 24, 2007 1:52 pm    Post subject: Firing clay in unvented kilns may be a source of exposure to Reply with quote

Oct. 23, 2007
University of Michigan

Firing clay in unvented kilns may be a source of exposure to dioxins

ANN ARBOR, Mich.—Firing clay in unvented kilns could be a significant source of dioxins in people exposed regularly and over long periods, a new study suggests.

The results came out of follow-up interviews with subjects who participated in the University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study, which measured dioxin levels in residents in Midland and the Tittabawassee River flood plain between Midland and Saginaw.

The two-year study, commissioned by Dow Chemical Co., was to determine if elevated dioxin levels in the soil caused elevated levels of dioxins in residents' bodies.

A 35-year ceramicist had by far the highest blood dioxin levels in the study. Though the woman lived on contaminated soil, the contamination fingerprint of her blood was a closer match to the clay rather than the soil, said Dr. Alfred Franzblau, professor in the U-M School of Public Heath and co-principal investigator on the Dioxin Exposure Study. Franzblau said the woman worked with ball clay, which is used in ceramics.

Ceramics clay, sometimes referred to as ball clay, is known to be contaminated with dioxins, and Franzblau said the woman's clay displayed the same pattern of contamination shown previously to exist in ball clay tested in America and Europe. However, there are no previous reports suggesting that dioxins in clay can be a direct source of contamination for humans.

"We think they breathed it in from the volatilization when they fired the kiln," Franzblau said. The woman with the highest levels had three unvented kilns in her basement, so the fumes were released directly inside her home. Two other women who were ceramics enthusiasts also had elevated dioxin levels, though not nearly as high as the first woman. The two other women had kilns in their garages (not inside their homes), and did not use them as often.

Franzblau said it's important not to overreact to the findings, but that more study is needed to determine the impact. There may be thousands of unvented kilns being used in schools, pottery workshops and private homes.

"For most people this is not likely to result in any significant exposure," Franzblau said. "My case was somebody who did this regularly for 30 to 40 years. A child once a week in an art class is in a radically different realm. But there are other people like her and I think there needs to be more research to better characterize the danger."

The Dioxin Exposure Study did not measure health effects of dioxin on the 946 subjects who participated.

"Although we have been able to confirm that clay can be a dominant source of exposure to dioxins, you can't draw conclusions about health effects based on just three cases," said Franzblau, also an associate professor of emergency medicine.

Researchers from the University of Michigan College of Engineering, the Institute for Social Research, and the Center for Statistical Consulting and Research also contributed to the report. The paper, "Human Exposure to Dioxins from Clay: A Case Report" is available online at http://www.ehponline.org/membe...../10594.pdf

The University of Michigan School of Public Health has been working to promote health and prevent disease since 1941, and is consistently ranked among the top five schools in the country. Faculty and students in the school's five academic departments and dozens of collaborative centers and institutes are forging new solutions to the complex health challenges of today, including chronic disease, health care quality and finance, emerging genetic technologies, climate change, socioeconomic inequalities and their impact on health, infectious disease, and the globalization of health. Whether making new discoveries in the lab or researching and educating in the field, our faculty, students, and alumni are deployed around the globe to promote and protect our health.
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