PAETE.ORG FORUMS
Paetenians Home on the Net

HOME | ABOUT PAETE | USAP PAETE MUNISIPYO  | MEMBERS ONLY  | PICTORIAL PAETE | SINING PAETE  | LINKS  |

FORUM GUIDELINES
please read before posting

USAP PAETE Forum Index USAP PAETE
Discussion Forums for the people of Paete, Laguna, Philippines
 
 FAQFAQ   SearchSearch    UsergroupsUsergroups   RegisterRegister 
 ProfileProfile   Log in to check your private messagesLog in to check your private messages   Log inLog in 

(Health) Allergies

 
Post new topic   Reply to topic   printer-friendly view    USAP PAETE Forum Index -> Science Lessons Forum
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Sun Sep 10, 2006 6:50 am    Post subject: (Health) Allergies Reply with quote






Karolinska Institutet
8 September 2006

'Allergy cells' can aggravate cancer and psoriasis

The body's mast cells are mainly associated with allergic reaction in the way they release histamine and other inflammatory substances. However, researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now demonstrated how the mast cells can also contribute to diseases like psoriasis and cancer.

Mast cells are most known for their association with allergic reactions, as they act like microscopic "bombs" to trigger the release of a number of substances that give rise to the classic allergic symptoms, such as swelling, congestion and itching. The explosive reactions are activated when an allergen (such as pollen particles) binds to receptors on the surface of the mast cell, which then opens and secretes part of its contents.

In the past few years it has emerged that mast cells, which are a type of immune cell, are probably also involved in the development of a number of other diseases, like atopical eczema, psoriasis, and the Hodgkins lymphoma cancer type. These diseases are characterised by chronic inflammations and an increase in the number of mast cells. However, the mechanisms behind this are relatively unknown.

Associate professor Gunner Nilsson at Karolinska Institutet and his research group have now found a possible explanation for the link between mast cells and several non-allergic diseases. The study, which is presented online by The Journal of Clinical Investigation, shows that mast cells can be activated in a previously unknown way that might lead to chronic inflammation.

"These new findings contribute to our understanding of the part played by the mast cell in atopical eczema, psoriasis and Hodgkins Lymphoma," says Mr Nilsson. "We hope that our research will make it possible for scientists to develop new forms of therapy for the mast cell-related diseases."

The group discovered that the CD30 protein, which is found on the surface of the immune systems T-lymphocytes amongst other places, can stimulate mast cells to release proteins that regulate the recruitment of inflammatory cells. Since it is already known that levels of CD30 are higher in people with psoriasis or atopical eczema and with Hodgkins lymphoma, the results can explain how the mast cells are activated and how they aggravate inflammation in these diseases.

*************************************************************

Questions to explore further this topic:

What are allergies?

http://www.kidshealth.org/teen.....rgies.html
http://www.kidshealth.org/pare.....lergy.html
http://www.clevelandclinic.org.....index=8610
http://www.zirtek.co.uk/Allerg.....rgies.aspx
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/co.....ndex.shtml



Multimedia Library on Allergy

http://aafa_al.healthology.com.....;f=allergy

What are allergy tests?

http://www.labtestsonline.org/.....lance.html
http://www.mayoclinic.com/heal.....ts/AA00023
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/co.....ndex.shtml

How are allergies treated?

http://www.mayoclinic.com/heal.....ns/AA00037
http://www.mayoclinic.com/heal.....ts/AA00017

What are antihistamines?

http://familydoctor.org/262.xml

Anaphylaxis: First Aid

http://www.mayoclinic.com/heal.....is/FA00003

How are allergies prevented?

http://www.niehs.nih.gov/airbo.....event.html
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/allergy/HQ01514
http://kidshealth.org/parent/g.....ntrol.html
http://www.aafa.org/display.cfm?id=9&cont=82

What are mast cells?

http://www.cellsalive.com/mite1.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mast_cell

What is the immune system?

http://www.niaid.nih.gov/final/immun/immun.htm
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=1121

What is cancer?

http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=1064

What is psoriasis?

http://www.skincarephysicians......hatis.html
http://www.niams.nih.gov/hi/to.....riasis.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psoriasis/DS00193
http://www.derm.ubc.ca/skincar.....rhand.html

GAMES

http://www.aaaai.org/patients/.....efault.stm
http://coep.pharmacy.arizona.e.....unbook.pdf
http://www.niehs.nih.gov/kids/baylor/homeair.htm


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 4:41 pm; edited 2 times in total
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu Oct 12, 2006 6:59 am    Post subject: Children of Allergy Sufferers Prone to Same Problem Reply with quote

Children of Allergy Sufferers Prone to Same Problem
9 October 2006
University of Cincinatti


Infants whose parents have allergies that produce symptoms like wheezing, asthma, hay fever or hives risk developing allergic sensitization much earlier in life than previously reported, according to a study by Cincinnati researchers.

The study suggests that the current practice of avoiding skin testing for airborne allergens before age 4 or 5 should be reconsidered, so children in this high-risk group can be detected early and monitored for the possibility of later allergic respiratory disease.

Produced by scientists in UC’s departments of environmental health and internal medicine and at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, the study is reported in the October 2006 edition of The Journal of Pediatrics.

The Cincinnati researchers collected data on 680 children being evaluated for enrollment in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS), sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and compared their results with findings in a 2004 Swedish study.

Using the skin-prick allergy test, the Swedish group found that in their general population—which included children whose parents did not suffer from allergies—7 percent had allergic sensitivity at age 1. The Swedes tested five allergens, two of which were food allergens.

The Cincinnati results, however, showed that 28.4 percent of infants born to “atopic” parents, defined as those with allergies, were sensitized to one or more airborne or food allergens. Eighteen percent were positive to one or more airborne allergens, and 13.7 percent were positive only to an airborne allergen.

According to UC epidemiologist Grace LeMasters, PhD, principal investigator for CCAAPS and the lead author of the report, the Cincinnati findings suggest that the potential for allergic disorders in infancy is underemphasized, “even though sensitization to allergens at younger ages has been shown to be more important than sensitization in late childhood for the development of wheezing symptoms and asthma.”

Working with LeMasters on the study were David Bernstein, MD, Jocelyn Biagini, James Lockey, MD, Patrick Ryan, Manuel Villareal, MD, all UC, and Gurjit Khurana Hershey, MD, PhD, Cincinnati Children’s.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Jan 15, 2007 11:03 am    Post subject: White blood cells in lung produce histamine seen in allergie Reply with quote

University of California - San Francisco
12 January 2007

White blood cells in lung produce histamine seen in allergies

First evidence that neutrophils, or any cell other than mast cells, produce histamine in significant quantities in mouse study
In a surprise finding, scientists have discovered that histamine, the inflammatory compound released during allergic reactions that causes runny nose, watery eyes, and wheezing, can be produced in large amounts in the lung by neutrophils, the white blood cells that are the major component of pus.

Pus, a fluid found in infected tissue, is produced as a result of inflammation.

The study in mice is the first to show that lung neutrophils can produce histamine in significant quantities, according to principal investigator George Caughey, MD, chief of pulmonary/critical care medicine at the San Francisco VA Medical Center.

"Previously it was thought that the primary sources of lung histamine, in health as well as disease, was mast cells, which are classically associated with allergy," notes Caughey, who is also a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco.

Caughey says the result could mean that histamine acts as a link between airway infections and asthma and bronchitis, which are associated with allergy. "In both, we observe inflammation –– swelling, blood vessel leak, and muscle contraction that narrows the airway."

The study appears in the January 2007 issue of the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

Caughey was investigating the well-known fact that upper respiratory infections often trigger acute asthma attacks. "We hypothesized that an infection in the airway would release histamine from mast cells, and that would be one of the reasons," he explains.

To test the hypothesis, Caughey and his team exposed two different populations of mice to mycoplasma, a common respiratory infection in rodents and humans. One population had a genetic abnormality that causes a total lack of mast cells; the other population was made up of normal, wild-type mice. Both populations of infected mice developed pneumonia.

"We thought the mice without mast cells would do better than the wild-type mice, because the infection wouldn't be provoking mast cells to release histamine," recalls Caughey. "In fact, they did much worse. Even though there were no mast cells, histamine levels rose up to 50 times normal."

The reason was straightforward, Caughey says. Neutrophil numbers increased in response to infection, and neutrophils in turn produced histamine. "It's a direct effect of the mycoplasma bacteria on neutrophils. They induce neutrophils to produce the enzyme that produces histamine."

Individual neutrophils produce much less histamine than individual mast cells, says Caughey, but "because pus contains millions if not billions of neutrophils, the overall amount they make is very considerable."

The neutrophil-histamine effect was similar in the wild-type mice, reports Caughey: "Histamine levels from neutrophils blew right past the histamine levels contributed by mast cells."

The wild-type mice suffered less severe infections overall because "as a number of recent studies, including ours, have shown, mast cells actually play a role in protecting against bacteria," Caughey explains. "For example, a mouse without mast cells with the equivalent of a ruptured appendix will die of the resulting infection, while a mouse with mast cells can survive."

When the infected mice without mast cells were given antihistamines, the level of histamine, and therefore the severity of the pneumonia, dropped in proportion to the amount of antihistamine given.

"This is a study in mice, so we cannot freely extrapolate the results to human beings," cautions Caughey. "Nonetheless, antihistamines may deserve more of a look as therapeutic options in lung and airway infection."

He says the study also has implications for other types of airway infection "in which there are a lot of white blood cells –– cystic fibrosis, for example, which can be associated with asthma-like airway contraction."

The next steps for Caughey and his research team are to investigate "how general this result might be. Does only one type of bacteria cause the effect, or do others, also? Is it limited to rodents, or does it carry forward to humans? And if it does, is the amount of histamine produced by neutrophils enough to make a clinical difference?"


###
Co-authors of the study were Xiang Xu, MD, PhD, Dongji Zhang, MD, PhD, Hong Zhang, PhD, Paul J. Wolters, MD, Nigel P. Killeen, PhD, Brandon M. Sullivan, Richard M. Locksley, MD, and Clifford A. Lowell, MD, PhD, of UCSF.

The study was supported by funds from the National Institutes of Health, the Diamond Family Foundation, and an Elizabeth Nash memorial fellowship from Cystic Fibrosis Research, Inc. A part of the NIH funds was administered by the Northern California Institute for Research and Education.

NCIRE is the largest research institute associated with a VA medical center. Its mission is to improve the health and well-being of veterans and the general public by supporting a world-class biomedical research program conducted by the UCSF faculty at SFVAMC.

SFVAMC has the largest medical research program in the national VA system, with more than 200 research scientists, all of whom are faculty members at UCSF.

UCSF is a leading university that advances health worldwide by conducting advanced biomedical research, educating graduate students in the life sciences and health professions, and providing complex patient care.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Feb 05, 2007 6:39 pm    Post subject: Allergy to hair dye increasing Reply with quote

BMJ-British Medical Journal
5 February 2007

Allergy to hair dye increasing

Editorial: Allergy to hair dye
Allergic reactions to hair dye are increasing as more and younger people dye their hair, warn researchers in this week's BMJ.

This can lead to dermatitis on the face and, in severe cases, facial swelling may occur.

More than two thirds of hair dyes currently contain para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and other related agents. During the 20th century, allergic reactions to PPD became such a serious problem that it was banned from hair dyes in Germany, France, and Sweden.

Current European Union legislation allows PPD to comprise up to 6% of the constituents of hair dyes on the consumer market, but no satisfactory or widely accepted alternatives to these agents are available for use in permanent hair dye.

Dermatologists report anecdotally that the frequency of positive reactions to PPD on patch testing is increasing. This was confirmed in a recent survey in London, which found a doubling in frequency over six years to 7.1% in a clinic for adults with contact dermatitis. This trend has also been observed in other countries.

Market research also indicates that more people are dyeing their hair and are doing so at a younger age. A survey in 1992 by the Japan Soap and Detergent Association found 13% of female high school students, 6% of women in their 20s, and 2% of men in their 20s reported using hair colouring products. By 2001 the proportions had increased in these three groups to 41%, 85%, and 33%, respectively.

Severe hair dye reactions among children have also recently been reported.

Wider debate on the safety and composition of hair dyes is overdue, say the authors. Cultural and commercial pressures to dye hair are putting people at risk and increasing the burden on health services.

It may not be easy to reverse these trends, however, as some patients have continued to use such dyes even when advised that they are allergic to them and risk severe reactions, they conclude.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Tue Apr 03, 2007 8:15 pm    Post subject: Researchers at Children's Discover Connection between Allerg Reply with quote

Researchers at Children's Discover Connection between Allergic Diseases and Autoimmune Diseases
April 3, 2007
Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center

A new study by researchers at Children’s and the University of Washington (UW) identifies a connection between allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema, and autoimmune diseases. The study was published in the April 1 edition of Nature Immunology.

Approximately 75 percent of autoimmune diseases occur in women, most frequently during the childbearing years. These diseases also comprise a significant portion of chronic childhood disorders. Autoimmune disease refers to a group of more than 80 serious, chronic illnesses including diseases of the nervous, gastrointestinal, and endocrine systems as well as skin and other connective tissues, eyes, blood, and blood vessel. In all of these diseases, the underlying problem is similar—the body’s immune system (including B and/or T immune cells) becomes misdirected, attacking the very organs it was designed to protect.

“Our study implies that allergic and inflammatory diseases may actually trigger autoimmune diseases by relaxing the controls that normally eliminate newly produced, self-reactive B cells. This is important because many autoimmune diseases are caused by self-reactive antibodies produced by such B cells” said Dr. David Rawlings lead researcher and section head of Immunology at Children’s Hospital and the UW.

Researchers at Children’s are now trying to discover specifically where the “relaxation” in the control of B cell autoimmunity takes place. “In association with other UW laboratories, we also have begun to study drugs that can counter some of these effects. One such drug helps to prevent autoimmune kidney disease in a related animal model,” said Rawlings.

In addition to Dr. David Rawlings, other authors of the study included Alexander Astrakhan, Thuc Nguyen, MD and Shirly Becker-Herman, PhD.
For a complete copy of the study, please visit http://www.nature.com/ni/journ.....ABF55F0146 or http://www.nature.com/ni/index.html

About Children's Hospital and Regional Medical Center
Consistently ranked as one of the best children's hospitals in the country by U.S. News & World Report and Child magazines, Children's serves as the pediatric referral center for Washington, Alaska, Montana and Idaho.

Children's delivers superior patient care, advances new discoveries and treatments in pediatric research, and serves as a primary teaching, clinical and research site for the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Washington School of Medicine.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu Apr 26, 2007 11:16 am    Post subject: HAY FEVER CAN SEND WORK PRODUCTIVITY DOWN THE DRAIN Reply with quote

HAY FEVER CAN SEND WORK PRODUCTIVITY DOWN THE DRAIN
Ohio State University
26 April 2007

COLUMBUS , Ohio – Employers can blame hay fever for the loss of millions of hours of work productivity this spring.

A new study of nearly 600 people with hay fever symptoms, including sneezing, watery eyes and runny and itchy noses, found that workers missed an hour of work per week during peak hay fever season.

While missing an hour of work a week may seem small, consider that 20 to 50 million Americans suffer from at least some symptoms related to hay fever, or allergic rhinitis, said Sheryl Szeinbach, the study's lead author and a professor of pharmacy practice and administration at Ohio State University.

For the full article:

http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/sneeze.htm
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Wed May 02, 2007 11:24 am    Post subject: Cat Hair at Home Poses an Allergy Risk Reply with quote

Cat Hair at Home Poses an Allergy Risk, Particularly for Young Children: GSF Scientists Recommend that Families at Risk Keep No Domestic Cat

National Research Center for Environment and Health, GmbH, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany

Cats and cat allergens in the home clearly raise the risk of the allergic sensitisation of children up to the age of two. For older children, however, the influence of the environment at home on the development of cat allergen sensitization decreases. This is the conclusion reached by scientists from the GSF – National Research Center for Environment and Health (GSF), Helmholtz-Association, when they evaluated the data of more than 2,000 children from Leipzig and Munich.

For the full article:

http://www.gsf.de/neu/Aktuelle.....are_en.php
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu Jun 21, 2007 7:33 am    Post subject: Researchers Develop Buckyballs to Fight Allergy Reply with quote

Researchers Develop Buckyballs to Fight Allergy

Virginia Commonwealth University
20 June 2007

A research team has identified a new biological function for a soccer ball-shaped nanoparticle called a buckyball – the ability to block allergic response, setting the stage for the development of new therapies for allergy.

Allergic disease is the sixth leading cause of chronic disease in the United States, and while various treatments have been developed to control allergy, no cure has been found. These findings advance the emerging field of medicine known as nanoimmunology.

The researchers, from Virginia Commonwealth University and Luna Innovations Inc., a private, Roanoke, Va., research company, are the first to show that buckyballs are able to block allergic response in human cell culture experiments.

Buckyballs, or fullerenes, are nanoparticles containing 60 carbon atoms. Due to their unique structure, inertness and stability, researchers from a number of scientific fields have been investigating the tiny, hollow carbon cages to serve a variety of functions. In this study, researchers modified the buckyballs so that they were compatible with water. The new study findings were published online in the June 19 issue of the Journal of Immunology and will appear in the July 1 print issue of the journal.

"This discovery is exciting because it points to the possibility that these novel materials can one day lead to new therapies," said Chris Kepley, Ph.D., M.B.A., assistant professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology at the VCU School of Medicine.

"Researchers in many fields are aware of the potential fullerenes have, however, we are the first to show they can turn off the allergic response and basic immune reactions," he said.


According to Kepley, who is the principal author of the paper, the buckyballs are able to 'interrupt' the allergy/immune response by inhibiting a basic process in the cell that leads to the release of an allergic mediator. Essentially, the buckyballs are able to prevent mast cells from releasing histamine.

Mast cells are responsible for causing allergic response and are packed with granules containing histamine. They are present in nearly all tissues except blood. When mast cells are activated, inflammatory substances such as histamine, heparin and a number of cytokines are rapidly released into the tissues and blood, promoting an allergic response.


The researchers found that the unique structure of the buckyball enables it to bind to free radicals dramatically better than any anti-oxidant currently available, such as vitamin E. Free radicals are molecules that cause oxidative stress, which experts believe may be the basis of aging.

"The immune system both protects us and causes harm, so we are always interested in finding new pathways to help manage the harmful effects," said Kepley.


This research was supported in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health and the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network.

Researchers from VCU working with Kepley included: John J. Ryan, Ph.D., from the Department of Biology; Wei Zhao, M.D., Ph.D., from the Department of Pediatrics; and Lawrence Schwartz, M.D., Ph.D., and Greg Gomez, Ph.D., from the Department of Internal Medicine.

For the full article (video and audio clips):

http://www.news.vcu.edu/news.a.....p;nid=2121
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Wed Jun 27, 2007 12:20 pm    Post subject: 'Knockout' technique tested successfully on mice Reply with quote

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

'Knockout' technique tested successfully on mice
Hebrew University

No more choking and burning eyes? Hebrew University Ph.D. student develops new approach to eliminating allergies, asthma

Jerusalem, June 27, 2007 – Allergies, like the common cold and asthma, have basically defied the best efforts of modern medicine to cure them. Now, a doctoral candidate at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem School of Pharmacy has come up with a new approach that offers hope for getting rid of them.

For his efforts, Chilean-born Ido Bachelet, a first cousin of the president of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, and a Ph.D. student under the supervision of Prof. Francesca Levi-Schaffer, has been named the winner of one of this year’s Barenholz Prizes for Creativity and Originality in Applied Research. The award, named for its donor, Yehezkel Barenholz, the Dr. Daniel G. Miller Professor of Cancer Research at the Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, was presented recently during the Hebrew University Board of Governors 70th meeting.

Bachelet’s research has focused on mechanisms that regulate the function of mast cells – the “villains” in triggering allergic reactions. When exposed to allergens, mast cells react violently and release an enormous array of pro-inflammatory substances, of which histamine is a well known example. These substances lead to acute symptoms ranging from stuffy nose, rash, and airway constriction to the lethal shock known from food or venom allergies. Later on, they attract inflammatory cells that will maintain the response, which often persists as a chronic disease.

Although allergies are usually not perceived as lethal, reality is different. In 2005, over 250,000 people died from asthma worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that this rate will increase by 20 percent within the next decade if urgent action is not taken. Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children.

Bachelet has identified a receptor protein on mast cells, termed CD300a. This receptor has a prominent negative effect on mast cell activity, virtually shutting down the cell from unleashing allergic responses. Unfortunately, CD300a is widely found throughout the immune system, and simply targeting it could result in undesired, overall immune suppression with serious consequences, as can happen with steroids.

In order to overcome this problem, Bachelet and his research colleague, Ariel Munitz, have designed a small, synthetic, antibody fragment that has the unusual ability of recognizing two targets simultaneously -- the receptor CD300a and a mast cell-specific marker. Thus, the antibody targets CD300a only on the surface of mast cells, avoiding suppression of other immune cells. This antibody potently eliminated four different types of allergic diseases in mice. Moreover, when mice suffering from severe chronic asthma received the antibody in nose drops, they completely reverted to normal, healthy mice in less than two months.

This pioneering project, termed RECEPTRA, presents a novel therapeutic strategy for acute and chronic allergic diseases, and is currently being licensed through Yissum, the Hebrew University’s technology transfer company, to pharmaceutical companies for further development and eventual clinical trials.

Based on its enormous potential, Bachelet and his team predict that with further development, their technology will become the first line of allergy therapy in the near future.

###
For further information:

Jerry Barach, Dept. of Media Relations, the Hebrew University, Tel: 02-588-2904, or Orit Sulitzeanu, Hebrew University spokesperson, Tel: 02-5882910 or 052-260-8016.

Internet site: http://media.huji.ac.il
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Sun Jul 01, 2007 7:50 am    Post subject: Exposure to cats increases bronchial responsiveness in peopl Reply with quote

American Thoracic Society
1 July 2007

Exposure to cats increases bronchial responsiveness in people without specific cat allergy

Researchers in the United Kingdom have found that increased exposure to cat allergen is associated with greater bronchial responsiveness (BR) in people with certain common allergies, even if they are not specifically allergic to cats. This suggests that reduced exposure to cats may be beneficial for allergic individuals, regardless of their specific allergies.

“This was an unexpected finding,” said Susan Chinn, D.Sc., lead author of the study. “We presupposed that we would find increased responsiveness only in those individuals who were exposed to cat allergen and whose blood tests showed that they were allergic to cats. But our study suggests that all allergic individuals have signs of asthmatic responses if exposed to cat allergen, even if blood tests show that they are not allergic to cats.”

Dr. Chinn, of the Imperial College in London, and 12 other researchers reported their findings in the first issue for July 2007 of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, published by the American Thoracic Society.

The study examined cross-sectional data from 1,884 participants in 20 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) follow-up, which included measurements of house dust mite and cat allergen in mattress dust samples, and data on IgE sensitization to four major allergens—cat, house dust mite, Cladosporidium (a common mold) and timothy grass. The researchers used the “objective measure of choice in epidemiological studies on asthma”—BR in response to a methacholine challenge— to analyze the interaction between exposure to house dust mite and cat allergen and prior allergic sensitization. Because the study included complete data on nearly 2,000 individuals across 20 centers in Europe, researchers were able to exclude potentially confounding effects.

“Our primary results showed no correlation between levels of house mite dust and BR among individuals with sensitization to any of the four tested allergens,” said Dr. Chinn. “But even moderate exposure to cat allergen resulted in significantly greater responsiveness.”

Among people with any sensitization, the difference in BR between those who had low versus high exposure to cat allergen was almost as great a difference as that between non-asthmatic and asthmatic individuals in the United Kingdom centers of the ECRHS.

This study supports and clarifies previous research that has found that asthma is strongly related to indoor allergens and that patients with specific sensitizations exhibit greater BR in response to exposure to the allergens to which they are sensitized. However, the interaction between sensitization of any kind and current exposure was unexpected.

More than one in four of the individuals included in the ECRHS were sensitized to at least one of the allergens tested, indicating that avoidance of cat exposure would be beneficial to a much wider population than previously expected. Furthermore, cat allergen levels were ubiquitous in cat-owning communities, and their results showed effects of cat allergen exposure at lower levels than generally regarded necessary to produce a measurable result.

“Based on the current research, it appears that many individuals could benefit from reduced cat ownership and exposure,” says Dr. Chinn. “However, because the findings were unexpected, it is important that results are replicated in other studies before firm recommendations are made.”

The researchers could not rule out the possibility that cat allergen exposure or cat ownership could be a proxy for exposure to endotoxin, known to be an immune stimulant marginally associated with asthmatic symptoms, which is found in higher concentrations in cat owners’ homes.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Jul 02, 2007 7:19 am    Post subject: Allergy molecule identified Reply with quote

Norwich BioScience Institutes
1 July 2007

Allergy molecule identified

A vital molecule for resistance to food allergy has been identified and offers a potential target for therapy.

There is currently no way to treat food allergy and the only way for sufferers to manage the problem is to avoid certain foods and make sure they have injectable adrenaline at hand.

Scientists led by Dr Claudio Nicoletti at the Institute of Food Research in Norwich have found that a molecule called Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is absent during allergic responses. Dr Nicoletti suggests that by delivering an allergen in the presence of IL-12, allergic reactions could be brought back under control.

“A food protein can be perfectly harmless to one person and lethal to another, said Dr Nicoletti. “We have identified the missing molecule that normally keeps immune responses under control and appropriate.”

Having a food allergy means that the immune system responds to a food protein as if it was harmful. The immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies, which normally help the body fight parasites. In the most severe cases individuals can suffer life-threatening reactions, including anaphylactic shock.

In previous research, Dr Nicoletti found that special types of white blood cells called dendritic cells are important in helping the immune system decide on how to respond to foreign molecules. In the latest research, Dr Nicoletti compared the activity of dendritic cells in the gut and in the spleen of allergic and allergy resistant mice. He found that in the gut of susceptible mice, dendritic cells have stopped producing IL-12.

This research was carried out in collaboration with the University of Siena.

“We have identified a molecule that is very important for the regulation of immune response and for the first time clearly represents a potential target for the therapy of allergy. This is currently under investigation”, said Dr Nicoletti.

David Reading, director of the Anaphylaxis Campaign, said: “Food allergy can place an extremely heavy burden on the families affected. We welcome this research and look forward to further developments.”

###
Contacts

Zoe Dunford, Media Manager
Institute of Food Research
t: 01603-255111
m: 07768-164185
e: zoe.dunford@bbsrc.ac.uk

Andy Chapple, Press Office Assistant
Institute of Food Research
t: 01603-251490
m: 07785-766779
e: andrew.chapple@bbsrc.ac.uk

Notes to editors


“Production of IL-12 by Peyer’s patch-dendritic cells is critical for the resistance to food allergy” will be published online by the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology on Monday 2nd July 2007


The mission of the Institute of Food Research (www.ifr.ac.uk) is to undertake international quality scientific research relevant to food and human health and to work in partnership with others to provide underpinning science for consumers, policy makers, the food industry and academia. It is a company limited by guarantee, with charitable status, grant aided by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (www.bbsrc.ac.uk).


The research was supported by a grant from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and intramural funds of the University of Siena.


The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is the UK funding agency for research in the life sciences. Sponsored by Government, BBSRC annually invests around £370 million in a wide range of research that makes a significant contribution to the quality of life for UK citizens and supports a number of important industrial stakeholders including the agriculture, food, chemical, healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors. www.bbsrc.ac.uk
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Fri Sep 14, 2007 2:10 pm    Post subject: Too Clean? Fight Against Germs Fuels Allergy Increase Reply with quote

Too Clean? Fight Against Germs Fuels Allergy Increase
By Jeanna Bryner, LiveScience Staff Writer

posted: 14 September 2007 10:10 am ET

A dose of dirt could be the best medicine for preventing allergies in kids who've never had them.

While avoiding excessive contact with germs can help prevent the spread of infections, going overboard with cleanliness could be at least partly responsible for an increase in allergies among children, mounting research suggests.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hea.....clean.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Thu Dec 27, 2007 9:48 am    Post subject: Fewer Children Outgrowing Allergies to Milk, Eggs Reply with quote

Fewer Children Outgrowing Allergies to Milk, Eggs
By Robert Preidt, HealthDay Reporter

posted: 26 December 2007 01:48 pm ET

(HealthDay News) -- Childhood milk and egg allergies may be more persistent and harder to outgrow than they were a generation ago, U.S. researchers report.

In two studies from the Johns Hopkins Children's Center, researchers followed more than 800 youngsters with milk allergy and almost 900 youngsters with egg allergy for more than 13 years.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/healthday/611098.html
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Jan 07, 2008 7:01 pm    Post subject: Eczema still on the increase in developing countries Reply with quote

University of Nottingham

Eczema still on the increase in developing countries
PA06/08 — January 07 2008
Experts are warning policy makers that allergic disease might replace infectious disease as a major cause of ill health in cities undergoing rapid demographic changes in developing countries.



New research tracking the number of cases of childhood eczema across the globe has revealed big changes in the prevalence of the condition over the last five to ten years and suggests that environmental factors could be having a significant impact.



Research, by a team of allergy experts across the world, has shown a levelling off in the number of cases of eczema in children aged between 13 to 14 years and a decrease in some countries like the UK and New Zealand where childhood eczema was once highly prevalent. But a continuing rise in younger children aged between six and seven and in the number of cases reported in developing countries is of growing concern.



Their paper, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, suggests environmental factors are key for eczema expression because it is highly unlikely that genetic factors would change in such a short time.



Hywel Williams, Professor of Dermato-Epidemiology in the Centre of Evidence-Based Dermatology at The University of Nottingham, who led the eczema research, says eczema needs to be tackled at a public health level in many countries.



He says that moderate or severe cases of eczema have a significant impact on family life and carry an economic burden comparable with that of asthma. Constant scratching often leads to sleep deprivation which also affects carers as well as incurring significant financial costs.



Professor Williams and his international team analysed information from two worldwide surveys of asthma and allergy symptoms in children which was carried out by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in childhood (ISAAC) between 1991 and 2001. ISAAC was formed in 1991 to facilitate research into asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema by promoting a standardised methodology, and currently holds a Guinness World record for the largest epidemiological study in children.



Professor Williams and his team analysed over 300,000 children aged 13 to 14 years from 105 centres in 55 countries and nearly 190,000 children aged six to seven years from 64 centres in 35 countries.



The largest decreases in children aged between 13 to 14 years were seen in developed countries in northwest Europe, such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden, Germany and also New Zealand. Professor Williams says this provides some reassurance that an allergic disease epidemic is not increasing inexorably throughout the world, and that a threshold effect may be in operation.



Most of the biggest increases in the 13 to 14 age group were seen in developing countries such as Mexico, Chile, Kenya and Algeria and in seven countries in Southeast Asia.



However, in six to seven year olds most countries showed significant increases over the five to ten year period.



Professor Williams said: “This is the first time we have been able to have a glimpse at what has been happening to eczema symptoms across the world using standardised methods. The results suggest that environmental factors are key to the expression of eczema — if only we could identify those factors so that we could prevent eczema in those countries experiencing significant increases.”



Although no singular environmental or genetic risk factor adequately explains the changes in eczema symptoms described in this paper Professor Williams does have some words of encouragement. He says there is already some evidence that eczema might be preventable to some degree and there is plenty of evidence on effective approaches to managing existing eczema symptoms. The way forward, he suggests, is for all public health responses to the eczema epidemic to ideally include an evaluative component so that others in the world can understand which approaches are more likely to be successful than others in different circumstances.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
adedios
SuperPoster


Joined: 06 Jul 2005
Posts: 5060
Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Mon Jan 14, 2008 2:01 pm    Post subject: Study helps explain how allergic reactions are triggered Reply with quote

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
14 January 2008

Study helps explain how allergic reactions are triggered

Findings point to calcium channels as essential regulators of mast cell activation
BOSTON –In demonstrating that a group of calcium ion channels play a crucial role in triggering inflammatory responses, researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have not only solved a longstanding molecular mystery regarding the onset of asthma and allergy symptoms, but have also provided a fundamental discovery regarding the functioning of mast cells. Their findings appear in the January 2008 issue of Nature Immunology.

A group of immune cells found in tissues throughout the body, mast cells were once exclusively known for their role in allergic reactions, according to the study’s lead author Monika Vig, PhD, an investigator in the Department of Pathology at BIDMC and Instructor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. “Mast cells store inflammatory cytokines and compounds [including histamine and heparin] in sacs called granules,” she explains. “When the mast cells encounter an allergen – pollen, for example – they ‘degranuate,’ releasing their contents and triggering allergic reactions.”

But, she adds, in recent years, scientists have uncovered numerous other roles for mast cells, suggesting they are key to a number of biological processes and are involved in diseases ranging from multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis to cancer and atherosclerosis.

In order for mast cells to function, they require a biological signal – specifically, calcium. Calcium moves in and out of the cells by way of ion channels known as CRAC (calcium-release-activated calcium) currents. Last year, several research groups, including Vig’s, identified CRACM1 as being the exact gene that was encoding for this calcium channel.

“With the identification of this long-elusive gene, we were able to create a knockout mouse that lacked CRACM1, and [as predicted] these animals proved to be resistant to various stimuli that usually cause severe allergic reactions,” she explains. Further experiments demonstrated that mast cells removed from the CRACM1 knockouts were not able to take in calcium, and therefore, were unable to provoke allergic responses when they were exposed to allergens.

“These findings provide the genetic demonstration that CRAC channels are essential in mast-cell activation,” notes senior author Jean-Pierre Kinet, MD, BIDMC Professor of Pathology at Harvard Medical School. “This provides the proof of concept that an inhibitor of the CRAC channel should be able to impact mast-cell related diseases, including asthma and allergic diseases.”

Adds Vig, “Since mast cells are also known to contribute to the progression of several other debilitating diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer, an inhibitor of the CRAC channel could, in the future, help in slowing the progression of these diseases as well as alleviate disease symptoms.”
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic   Reply to topic   printer-friendly view    USAP PAETE Forum Index -> Science Lessons Forum All times are GMT - 5 Hours
Page 1 of 1

 
Jump to:  
You can post new topics in this forum
You can reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2005 phpBB Group