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(Health) Dietary Supplements

 
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adedios
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PostPosted: Tue Sep 12, 2006 10:23 am    Post subject: (Health) Dietary Supplements Reply with quote






Dietary Supplements: Too Much of a Good Thing?

By Christopher Wanjek
LiveScience’s Bad Medicine Columnist
posted: 12 September 2006
07:10 am ET

Americans are spending $23 billion a year on dietary supplements, and the National Institutes of Health thinks that might be about $22.99 billion too much. In its long awaited final statement on multivitamin and mineral supplements, released in August, the NIH claims there's no convincing evidence to support the claim that taking supplements is a good idea for the general population.

Worse, the overdose of nutrition might have negative effects.

This might sound like bad news for the dietary supplement industry and its legion of naive, pill-popping devotees, which includes more than half of American adults along with myself, a daily multivitamin junkie.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum.....amins.html

*************************************************************

Questions to explore further this topic:

The NIH Final Statement (August 1, 2006) on Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

http://consensus.nih.gov/2006/MVMFINAL080106.pdf

What are dietary supplements?

http://www.kidshealth.org/teen.....ments.html
http://dietary-supplements.inf.....ements.asp
http://nccam.nih.gov/health/bottle/
http://www.extension.iastate.e.....pplements/

Using Dietary Supplements Safely and Wisely

http://www.mayoclinic.com/heal.....ts/NU00198

Dietary Supplements Fact Sheets

http://dietary-supplements.inf.....ments.aspx
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medline.....b_All.html

Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Fact Sheets

http://dietary-supplements.inf.....heets.aspx

What are botanical dietary supplements?

http://dietary-supplements.inf.....ground.asp

Botanical Supplements Fact Sheets

http://dietary-supplements.inf.....ments.aspx

Dietary Supplements Safety and Warnings Information

http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ds-take.html
http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ds-warn.html

Can dietary supplements harmfully interact with drugs?

http://www.acsh.org/publicatio.....detail.asp

GAMES

http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline.....ppquiz.htm
http://www.dairycouncilofca.or.....a_main.htm
http://www.mypyramid.gov/kids/index.html
http://mann.broccoli.com/mainpage.htm
http://www.nichd.nih.gov/milk/kids/kidsteens.cfm
http://www.dole5aday.com/MusicAndPlay/M_Games.jsp
http://www.5aday.org/html/kids/kids_home.php
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adedios
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 28, 2007 8:32 am    Post subject: Use of some antioxidant supplements may increase mortality r Reply with quote

JAMA and Archives Journals
27 February 2007

Use of some antioxidant supplements may increase mortality risk

Contradicting claims of disease prevention, an analysis of previous studies indicates that the antioxidant supplements beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E may increase the risk of death, according to a meta-analysis and review article in the February 28 issue of JAMA.

Many people take antioxidant supplements, believing they improve their health and prevent diseases. Whether these supplements are beneficial or harmful is uncertain, according to background information in the article.

Goran Bjelakovic, M.D., Dr.Med.Sci., of the Center for Clinical Intervention Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, and colleagues conducted an analysis of previous studies to examine the effects of antioxidant supplements (beta carotene, vitamins A and E, vitamin C [ascorbic acid], and selenium) on all-cause death of adults included in primary and secondary prevention trials. Using electronic databases and bibliographies, the researchers identified and included 68 randomized trials with 232,606 participants in the review and meta-analysis. The authors also classified the trials according to the risk of bias based on the quality of the methods used in the study, and stratified trials as "low-bias risk" (high quality) or "high-bias risk" (low quality).

In an analysis that pooled all low-bias risk and high bias risk trials, there was no significant association between antioxidant use and mortality. In 47 low-bias trials involving 180,938 participants, the antioxidant supplements were associated with a 5 percent increased risk of mortality. Among low-bias trials, use of beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E was associated with 7 percent, 16 percent and 4 percent, respectively, increased risk of mortality, whereas there was no increased mortality risk associated with vitamin C or selenium use.

"Our systematic review contains a number of findings. Beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E given singly or combined with other antioxidant supplements significantly increase mortality. There is no evidence that vitamin C may increase longevity. We lack evidence to refute a potential negative effect of vitamin C on survival. Selenium tended to reduce mortality, but we need more research on this question," the authors write.

"Our findings contradict the findings of observational studies, claiming that antioxidants improve health. Considering that 10 percent to 20 percent of the adult population (80-160 million people) in North America and Europe may consume the assessed supplements, the public health consequences may be substantial. We are exposed to intense marketing with a contrary statement, which is also reflected by the high number of publications per included randomized trial found in the present review."

"There are several possible explanations for the negative effect of antioxidant supplements on mortality. Although oxidative stress has a hypothesized role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, it may be the consequence of pathological conditions. By eliminating free radicals from our organism, we interfere with some essential defensive mechanisms . Antioxidant supplements are synthetic and not subjected to the same rigorous toxicity studies as other pharmaceutical agents. Better understanding of mechanisms and actions of antioxidants in relation to a potential disease is needed," the researchers conclude.
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adedios
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PostPosted: Wed May 09, 2007 11:36 am    Post subject: Majority of herb users don't follow evidence-based indicatio Reply with quote

Mayo Clinic
9 May 2007

Majority of herb users don't follow evidence-based indications, researchers find

ROCHESTER, Minn. -- Sales of herbal dietary supplements have skyrocketed by 100 percent in the United States during the last 10 years, but most people don’t consider evidence-based indications before using them, according to a University of Iowa study published in this month’s Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

Two-thirds of people who use herbs don’t do so in accordance with scientific guidelines, according to the article. Meanwhile, sales of herbal supplements reached $18.8 billion in 2003, up 100 percent from $8.8 billion in 1994. Those sales are subject to minimal federal regulations.

Physicians are concerned, says Aditya Bardia, M.D., lead author of the study and a resident in the Department of Internal Medicine at Mayo Clinic, because herbal supplements can have adverse side effects and interact negatively with therapeutic drugs. Physicians should ask patients about herb use during every clinical visit and hospital admission to better inform patients about potential benefits and harm, agree the study’s authors.

“Physicians, pharmacists and other health professionals should proactively educate consumers and advocate for public health policies that would disseminate evidence-based information regarding the appropriate use of herbs,” Dr. Bardia says.

To generate their findings, physicians culled information from a 2002 National Health Interview Survey taken among U.S. adults. The final study population, 609 adults, took a single herb and said they were taking it to treat a specific health condition.

The study found that only one-third of this population took the herbal preparation for a known scientific indication. Dr. Bardia cautions that further study is warranted as the efficacy of herb use evolves and says much more needs to be learned about the clinical indications for individual herbs.

###
Other authors of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings article are Nicole Nisly, M.D.; Brian Gryzlak; Robert Wallace, M.D.; and M. Bridget Zimmerman, Ph.D., all of the University of Iowa in Iowa City.

A peer-review journal, Mayo Clinic Proceedings publishes original articles and reviews dealing with clinical and laboratory medicine, clinical research, basic science research and clinical epidemiology. Mayo Clinic Proceedings is published monthly by Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research as part of its commitment to the medical education of physicians. The journal has been published for more than 80 years and has a circulation of 130,000 nationally and internationally. Articles are available online at http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com

To obtain the latest news releases from Mayo Clinic, go to www.mayoclinic.org/news. MayoClinic.com ( http://www.mayoclinic.com ) is available as a resource for your health stories.
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adedios
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PostPosted: Tue Nov 06, 2007 6:10 pm    Post subject: Foods, not specific nutrients, may be key to good health Reply with quote

University of Minnesota

Foods, not specific nutrients, may be key to good health

Concept is contrary to industry, government approach to nutrition
MINNEAPOLIS / ST. PAUL (November 6, 2007) – In a recent academic review, a University of Minnesota professor in the School of Public Health has concluded that food, as opposed to specific nutrients, may be key to having a healthy diet.

This notion is contrary to popular practice in food industry and government, where marketers and regulators tend to focus on total fat, carbohydrate and protein and on specific vitamins and added supplements in food products, not the food items as a whole. The research is published in last month’s Journal of Nutrition Reviews.

“We are confusing ourselves and the public by talking so much about nutrients when we should be talking about foods,” said David Jacobs, Ph.D., the principal investigator and Mayo Professor of Public Health at the University of Minnesota. “Consumers get the idea that diet and health can be understood in terms of isolated nutrients. It’s not the best approach, and it might be wrong.”

Jacobs, with coauthor Professor Linda Tapsell of the University of Wollongong in Australia, argues that people should shift the focus toward the benefits of entire food products and food patterns in order to better understand nutrition in regard to a healthy human body.

They focus on the concept of food synergy – the idea that more information about the impact of human health can be obtained by looking at whole foods than a single food component (such as vitamin C, or calcium added to a container of orange juice).

Jacobs and Tapsell provide several examples in which the single nutrient approach to nutrition has not proved to benefit health:

Long term randomized clinical trials, considered the gold standard for making judgments about nutritional treatment and health, have failed to show benefit or have suggested harm for cardiovascular events for isolated supplements of beta-carotene and B-vitamins. A similar large experiment in total fat reduction also did not show benefit. In contrast, myriad observations have been made of improved long-term health for foods and food patterns that incorporate these same nutrients naturally occurring in food.

An understanding of the interactions between food components in both single foods and whole diets opens up new areas of thinking that appear to have greater application to contemporary population health issues, particularly those related to chronic lifestyle disease, Jacobs said.

“It is this new understanding that reminds us emphatically of the central position of food in the nutrition-health interface, which begs for much more whole food-based research, and encourages us in both research and dietary advice to, ‘think food first’,” Tapsell said.
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PostPosted: Mon Dec 17, 2007 3:00 pm    Post subject: Special edition’s “call to arms” on antioxidant research Reply with quote

Special edition’s “call to arms” on antioxidant research
17 December 2007
Molecular Pharmaceutics

Consumer demand for dietary supplements containing large amounts of plant-based antioxidants has outpaced scientific knowledge on the actual health benefits, best dosages, and risks of those phytochemicals, according to an editorial in the December (current) issue of ACS’ Molecular Pharmaceutics, a bi-monthly journal. It is part of a special edition of the journal devoted to research on phytochemicals, substances found in fruits and vegetables, which show promise in preventing cancer, aging, heart disease and other conditions.

Guest Editor Ming Hu issues “a call to arms” for more relevant research on antioxidants, especially in the high doses used in dietary supplements. Many past studies on the potential health benefits of these compounds have been done in animals and their exact effects in humans are uncertain, he notes, without adequate attention to bioavailability — how much of a dose actually can be used by the body — and how phytochemicals interact with prescription drugs.

Hu calls for more studies exploring how these antioxidants are utilized in the body, particularly by targeted areas such as the heart and breast tissue. He notes, for example, that millions of women in the United States are taking soy-based phytoestrogens to relieve menopausal symptoms. Recent studies, however, found that a compound in soy might stimulate the growth of breast cancer. — MTS

ARTICLE #4 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
“Commentary: Bioavailability of Flavonoids and Polyphenols — Call to Arms”

DOWNLOAD PDF http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....001363.pdf

DOWNLOAD HTML http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....01363.html
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