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(Health) Diarrhea Hits the Road

 
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adedios
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PostPosted: Thu Dec 07, 2006 7:25 am    Post subject: (Health) Diarrhea Hits the Road Reply with quote






Diarrhea Hits the Road

By Sara Goudarzi
LiveScience Staff Writer
posted: 04 December 2006
05:05 pm ET

The construction of highways in northern Ecuador did more than open up access to once-isolated villages. It also created a new network for diarrheal pathogens to travel on, highlighting how human-influenced habitat changes could impact public health, a new study concludes.

In 1996, the government of Ecuador started building roads to link the southern Columbian border with the Ecuadorian coast. The roads—officially opened in 2002—connected villages that previously used only rivers for transport.

In 2003, a team of researchers began examining the effect of the new concrete landscape on 21 villages connected to the new transportation network. In particular, they examined the infection rates and modes of travel for three pathogens that cause diarrheal diseases: E. coli bacteria, rotavirus, and the protozoan parasite Giardia.

For the full article:

http://www.livescience.com/hum....._road.html

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Questions to explore further this topic:

A healthy story

http://www.kizclub.com/healthystory/healthy1.html

What is diarrhea?

http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov...../index.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/diarrhea/DS00292
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diarrhea

What are gastrointestinal infections?

http://www.bmb.leeds.ac.uk/mbi...../head.html
http://www.kidshealth.org/teen.....rrhea.html
http://www.hpa.org.uk/infectio.....o/menu.htm
http://www.kcom.edu/faculty/ch.....re/GI4.htm

How are gastrointestinal infections spread?

http://www.hpa.org.uk/cdph/iss.....2_4_04.pdf

GAMES

http://www.kidshealth.org/heal.....thhunt.htm
http://www.niehs.nih.gov/kids/baylor/homefood.htm


Last edited by adedios on Sat Jan 27, 2007 4:43 pm; edited 2 times in total
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adedios
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Location: Angel C. de Dios

PostPosted: Fri Jan 12, 2007 12:47 am    Post subject: Travelers need to know more about diarrhea Reply with quote

University of Alberta
11 January 2007

Travelers need to know more about diarrhea

Most people heading off to a sunny winter vacation in a foreign country know something about how to avoid a nasty case of travellers' diarrhea, but they don't know everything they should, according to a University of Alberta study.

A survey of 104 vacationers boarding flights for Mexico revealed that their general level of knowledge about the prevention of this condition was generally adequate; however, there were still some things they needed to know more about.

Of the travellers, surveyed as they boarded flights from the Calgary International Airport in March and April of 2005, more than 80 per cent knew that foods such as salad, partially cooked beef or chicken and ice cubes posed high risks for the illness. But only 47 per cent knew that chlorinated water is not always safe to drink, due to the resistance to chlorination among microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium. And while 96 per cent of the respondents knew that travellers' diarrhea could be contracted from bacteria, only 43 per cent knew that viruses could also be a cause. As well, only 55.8 per cent realized that hand-washing was an effective way to help ward off the sickness and 25 per cent of those surveyed wrongly identified fungi as sources of the diarrhea.

"The study showed that while these respondents are aware of the condition, they may not be aware of some important factors in avoiding and treating travellers' diarrhea," said Julie Johnson, lead author of the study and a PhD student in the Departments of Public Health Sciences and Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada.

The study findings appear in the most recent issue of Journal of Travel Medicine.

Overall, information on travel-related disease had been sought by almost half of the study participants before they headed out on their trips, although less than one-fourth consulted with a doctor, pharmacist or nurse. One-third got information from the Internet, travel agents, family and friends. The study also showed that those people with any information at all scored higher on the survey than did those with no information on the illness.

Johnson suggests it would be helpful if there were more information available specifically on travellers' diarrhea, and if the travel industry would more clearly demonstrate that this information is important to the safety and satisfaction of their clientele.

"For example, tour companies with Web-based ticket sale systems could provide online brochures to customers at point-of-purchase, or links to further health information. Health regions provide excellent information to those who seek it out, but many travellers may not be aware that is available," Johnson noted.

###
The study was supported in part by a grant from the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research.
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adedios
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PostPosted: Mon Feb 26, 2007 12:10 pm    Post subject: Discovery of chemical profiles for infectious diarrhea Reply with quote

University of Bristol
26 February 2007

Discovery of chemical profiles for infectious diarrhea

Academics have found, for the first time, smells from healthy faeces and people with infectious diarrhoea differ significantly in their chemical composition and could be used to diagnose quickly diseases such as Clostridium difficile (C. Diff.).

It is hoped the discovery of these chemical profiles will lead to the development of a device capable of rapid diagnosis at the bedside, saving both time and money.

The study, published online in The FASEB Journal, is the result of a joint collaboration between Dr Chris Probert, Consultant and Reader in Gastroenterology at Bristol University and Professor Norman Ratcliffe at the University of the West of England.

For a long time it has been known that stools have distinctive and different odours if there is an infection. What the researchers have done is to take this 'knowledge' a step further by analysing the odour of healthy donors and patients with gastrointestional disease to see if precise chemical profiles can be established.

The researchers compared faeces of healthy donors together with patients with ulcerative colitis, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile (C. Diff.) and found their chemical composition were each significantly different.

The next stage of the academics research is to develop a prototype rapid diagnosis device able to be operated by healthcare staff at all levels.

Dr Chris Probert said: "The discovery of chemical profiles is a major step forward in the diagnosis and treatment of people with gastrointestinal disease. Early treatment of Clostridium difficile means patients have a much better chance of survival and fewer complications. However, at present the average length of time taken to diagnose the condition is eight days. "

Two of the most common types of infectious diarrhoea are Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile (C. Diff.). Although less well known than the MRSA superbug, C. Diff. is just as serious, and affects more than 50,000 people each year in England and Wales at a cost to the NHS of around £60 million.

Dr Chris Probert added: "There is a huge potential for a rapid diagnosis device in the UK, 30,000 samples are tested in Bristol alone each year. However, the device could be adapted for use in developing countries where 7,000 children die as a result of diarrhoea every day. Our next aim is to produce a prototype device capable of diagnosing at any healthcare setting."

Professor Norman Ratcliffe, from the University of the West of England, added: "There are numerous different kinds of infection that cause diarrhoea and a speedy diagnosis would lead to more appropriate use of antibiotics. A rapid diagnosis device has the potential to save lives and reduce the cost burden to the NHS. Early isolation of infectious patients would reduce hospital outbreaks leading to fewer ward/hospital closures. "

"Rapid diagnosis of intestinal illnesses is as useful a contribution to public health as one could imagine," said Gerald Weissman, M.D., editor-in-chief of the FASEB Journal. "The method developed by Garner et al is not only useful, but also imaginative."


###
Last year the team were awarded £353,000 by the Wellcome Trust under their University Translation Award scheme and this study is funded by the grant, which is part of a three-year project.
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adedios
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PostPosted: Mon Oct 01, 2007 12:38 pm    Post subject: Ginger may combat deadly infant diarrhea in developing world Reply with quote

Ginger may combat deadly infant diarrhea in developing world
1 October 2007

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

The popular spice ginger shows promise as a treatment for bacteria-induced diarrhea, the leading cause of infant death in developing countries, according to a preliminary study in animals conducted by researchers in Taiwan. If confirmed by further studies, the findings could lead to an inexpensive, easy-to-obtain alternative to drug therapy for the condition, the researchers say. Their study will appear in the Oct. 3 issue of ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, a bi-weekly publication.

In studies using laboratory mice, Chien-Yun Hsiang and colleagues showed that an extract of ginger blocked the toxin responsible for diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli), which accounts for 210 million cases of diarrhea worldwide and causes 380,000 deaths yearly. They also showed that zingerone, a component of ginger, is the likely compound responsible for this effect.

“In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that ginger and its derivatives may be effective herbal supplements for the clinical treatment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea,” the researchers state. Additional studies are needed to determine the effective doses of ginger needed and whether it is safe for infants, who may experience unexpected side effects from large doses.

ARTICLE #3 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE “Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhea in Mice”

DOWNLOAD PDF http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....71460f.pdf
DOWNLOAD HTML http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/sa.....1460f.html
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adedios
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PostPosted: Sat Nov 10, 2007 11:25 am    Post subject: Diet Supplemented with MCT Oil in the Management of Childhoo Reply with quote

Diet Supplemented with MCT Oil in the Management of Childhood Diarrhea


Celeste C. Tanchoco, 1 Arsenia J. Cruz, 1 Jossie .M. Rogaccion, 2 Rosemarie S. Casem, 1 Marietta .P. Rodriguez, 1 Consuelo L. Orense, 1 and Lilibeth C. Hermosura 3
1 Clinical Nutrition Section, Nutrition Science and Technology Division, Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Bicutan, Taguig, Philippines
2 College of Medicine, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines
3 Organic chemical Section, Chemicals and Minerals Division, Industrial Technology Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Philippines


Diarrhea is a common illness and a leading cause of death among children. Feeding is an important part of diarrheal treatment, as fluid and electrolyte replacement. Sometimes, because of food withdrawal during episodes, children are starved and become malnourished. Home-made remedies like feeding with rice gruels or soups are resorted to. These are helpful but are not enough to alleviate severity of diarrhea because they are not rich in energy. But have you heard about the use to oil to improve nutrition of children with diarrhea?

For the full article:

http://www.bahaykuboresearch.n.....mp;view=59
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PostPosted: Wed Jan 23, 2008 1:13 pm    Post subject: Handwashing can reduce diarrhea episodes by about one third Reply with quote

Wiley-Blackwell
22 January 2008

Handwashing can reduce diarrhea episodes by about one third

The latest findings from The Cochrane Library

Both in institutions and in communities, interventions that promote hand washing lead to significant reductions in the incidence of diarrhoea.

The WHO* estimates that diarrhoea kills around 2.2 million people annually, mostly young children in middle- or low-income countries. Encouraging children and adults to wash their hands after using the lavatory is one intervention that has potential to reduce the risk.

A team of Cochrane Researchers set out to assess the strength of evidence for the benefits of hand washing. They studied data in 14 randomised controlled trials, eight of which had been conducted in day-care centres and schools mainly in high-income countries; five had been community-based trials in low- and middle-income countries, and one looked at a specific high-risk group of HIV-infected adults living in the USA.

The data showed that interventions promoting hand washing can reduce diarrhoea episodes by 29% in day-care centres in high-income countries and by 31% in communities in low- or middle- income countries.

“This is a huge benefit. For people in low-income areas this effect is comparable to providing clean water,” says lead author Dr Regina Ejemot.

“The challenge is to find ways of promoting hand washing, as well as to set up long term trials that test whether good practice has become part of a person’s way of life,” says Ejemot.


###

***SEE WWW.COCHRANE.ORG/PODCASTS FOR A PODCAST BY THE AUTHOR OF THIS REVIEW, AVAILABLE FROM WEDNESDAY 23RD JANUARY 2008***

* http://www.who.int/water_sanit.....arrhoea/en
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